National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
United States Department of Commerce


FY 2013

Observations: Oceans

Rhein, M., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L.D. Talley, F. Wang, I. Allison, M. Aoyama, M. Baringer, N.R. Bates, T. Boyer, R.H. Byrne, S. Cooley, S. Cunningham, T. Delcroix, C.M. Domingues, S. Doney, J. Dore, P.J. Durack, R. Fine, M. González-Dávila, S. Good, N. Gruber, M. Hemer, D. Hydes, M. Ishii, S. Jacobs, T. Kanzow, D. Karl, G. Kaser, A. Kazmin, R. Key, S. Khatiwala, J. Kleypas, R. Kwok, K. Lee, E. Leuliette, M. Menéndez, C. Mordy, J. Olafsson, J. Orr, A. Orsi, G.-H. Park, I. Polyakov, S.G. Purkey, B. Qiu, G. Reverdin, A. Romanou, S. Schmidtko, R. Schmitt, K. Shimada, D. Smith, T.M. Smith, U. Stöber, L. Stramma, T. Suga, N. Swart, T. Takahashi, T. Tanhua, K. von Schuckmann, H. von Storch, X. Wang, R. Wanninkhof, S. Wijffels, P. Woodworth, I. Yashayaev, and L. Yu

Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA (2013)

Executive summary synthesis: The observations summarized in this chapter provide strong evidence that ocean properties of relevance to climate have changed during the past 40 years, including temperature, salinity, sea level, carbon, pH, and oxygen. The observed patterns of change in the subsurface ocean are consistent with changes in the surface ocean in response to climate change and natural variability and with known physical and biogeochemical processes in the ocean, providing high confidence in this assessment.

Feature Publications | Outstanding Scientific Publications

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