National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
United States Department of Commerce


FY 1991

TOGA-TAO: A moored array for real-time measurements in the tropical Pacific Ocean

Hayes, S.P., L.J. Mangum, J. Picaut, A. Sumi, and K. Takeuchi

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 72(3), 339–347 (1991)

The importance of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in year-to-year fluctuations of the global climate has led to efforts to improve the real-time ocean observing system in the tropical Pacific. One element of this improved system is the TOGA-TAO (Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean) Array of wind and upper ocean thermistor chain moorings. This array, the result of an international effort, has already provided the rudiments of a basin-wide, real-time observing system and plans call for a major enhancement during the second half of the TOGA decade. The development of the TAO array is discussed, recent results from the pilot measurements are described, and plans for the expanded array are presented.

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