National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
United States Department of Commerce

Dr. D.E. Harrison

Emeritus Oceanographer
Staff Affiliation: 
PMEL Division: 
Ocean Climate
PMEL Project: 
Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project

Professor (Affiliate), School of Oceanography, University of Washington
Professor (Affiliate), Dept. Of Atmospheric Science, University of Washington


B.A.     Physics, Reed College, 1972
M.S.    Applied Math, Harvard University, 1973
Ph.D    Applied Math, Harvard University, 1977


Fellow, American Meteorological Society, 2014
NOAA Administrator’s Award 2010
Phi Beta Kappa, Reed College, 1972

Professional Employment:

1989- present  Professor (Affiliate), U. Washington, School  of Oceanography
1989-2013      Professor (Affiliate), U. Washington, School  of Oceanography
1985-89          Assoc. Prof (Affiliate), U. Washington, Dept of Atmos. Sciences
1985-89          Assoc. Prof (Affiliate), U. Washington, School of Oceanography
1985- present  Oceanographer, NOAA/PMEL
1984-86          Assoc. Prof. (visiting), M.I.T
1980-84          Assist. Prof. (visiting), M.I.T
1978-79          Lecturer, Harvard

Recent Service Activities:

Senior Fellow, Joint Inst Study Atmos & Ocean, UW, 1985-present
Senior Fellow, JIMAR, U Hawaii, 1989-present
NOAA OAR Climate Observing System Council, Chair, 2000-present
National Weather Service Climate Test Bed Science Advisory Group, 2005-present
External Fellow JIMO, Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, 2008-present
Proceedings OceanObs2009 Symposium (Vol 1, 2a, 2b), Co-Editor, 2009-present
Global Climate Observing System Steering Committee, 2010-present
WMO Commission on Agriculture, Expert Team on Fisheries and Climate, 2010-present
Co-organizer, Tropical Pacific Observing System- 2020, 2014
Co-organizer, GODAE/OceanView Symposium, 2013
Int'l CLIVAR Task Team on Climate Indices, co-chair, 2011-2013
Co-Editor, Proceedings OceanObs2009 Symposium (Vol 1, 2a, 2b), 2009-2012
Co-organizer, Ocean Observations 2009 Conference, Venice, Italy, 2007-2009
GOOS Steering Committee (ex-officio) 2002-2009
GCOS Steering Committee (ex-officio) 2002-2009
WCRP/GCOS/GOOS Ocean Observations Panel for Climate, Chair, 2002-2009
WCRP Joint Scientific Committee (ex-officio) 2002-2009
WMO/IOC Joint Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, Management Committee (ex-officio), 2002-2009
NOAA Decadal-Centennial Strategic Planning Team, 2000-2002
NSF Ocean Information Technology Steering Group, 1999-2002
US Carbon Cycle Science Observations Advisory Group, 1999-2002
International GODAE Steering Team 1998-2009
US Global Ocean Observing System Steering Committee, 1998-2007
US GODAE Steering Group, Executive Committee, 1998-2005
WCRP/GCOS Atmospheric Observations Panel for Climate, 1996-2009
WCRP/GCOS/GOOS Ocean Observations Panel for Climate, 1995-2009

PhD Students Supervised:

Mark Carson (UW)
Andy Chiodi (UW)
Narasimhan Larkin (UW)
Gabriel Vecchi (UW)
Benjamin Giese (UW)
David Gutzler (MIT)
Wesley Ebisuzaki (MIT)

Refereed Publications:


Chiodi, A.M., and D.E. Harrison (2015): Equatorial Pacific easterly wind surges and the onset of La Niña events. J. Climate, 28(2), doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00227.1, 776–792.

Chiodi, A.M., and D.E. Harrison (2015): Global seasonal precipitation anomalies robustly associated with El Niño and La Niña events—an OLR perspective. J. Climate, 28(15), doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00387.1, 6133–6159.

Harrison, D.E., and A.M. Chiodi (2015): Multi-decadal variability and trends in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific fisheries implications. Deep-Sea Res. II, 113, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.12.020, 9–21. 


Chiodi, A.M. and D.E. Harrison (2014): An OLR perspective on La Niña events and global seasonal weather impacts. J. Climate (in review).

Chiodi, A.M., D.E. Harrison, and G.A. Vecchi (2014): Subseasonal atmospheric variability and El Niño waveguide warming: Observed effects of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Westerly Wind Events. J. Climate, 27(10), doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00547.1, 3619–3642.

Chiodi, A.M., and D.E. Harrison (2014): Comment on Qian et al. 2008: La Niña and El Niño composites of atmospheric CO2 change. Tellus B, 66, 20428, doi: 10.3402/tellusb.v66.20428. 

Harrison, D.E., N. Bond, L. Goddard, R. Martinez, and T. Yamagata (2014): TPOS White Paper #2 - Some Societal Impacts of ENSO. In Proceedings of the Tropical Pacific Observing System 2020 Workshop, A Future Sustained Tropical Pacific Ocean Observing System for Research and Forecasting, WMO and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, La Jolla, CA, 27–30 January 2014. 

Cronin, M.F., M. Bourassa, C.A Clayson, J. Edson, C. Fairall, R.A. Feely, D.E. Harrison, S. Josey, M. Kubota, B. Praveen Kumar, K. Kutsuwada, B. Large, J.T. Mathis, M.J. McPhaden, L. O’Neill, R. Pinker, K. Takahashi, H. Tomita, R.A. Weller, L. Yu, and C. Zhang (2014): TPOS White Paper #11: Wind stress and air-sea fluxes observations: status, implementation and gaps. In Proceedings of the Tropical Pacific Observing System 2020 Workshop, A Future Sustained Tropical Pacific Ocean Observing System for Research and Forecasting, WMO and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, La Jolla, CA, 27–30 January 2014. 


Chiodi, A.M. and D.E.Harrison (2013): El Niño impacts on seasonal U.S. atmospheric circulation, temperature and precipitation anomalies: The OLR-event perspective. J. Climate, 26(3), doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00097.1, 822–837.


Chiodi, A.M., and D.E. Harrison (2012): Determining CO2 airborne fraction trends with uncertain land use change emission records. International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, 3(1), 79–88.

Harrison, D.E., and M. Carson (2012): Recent sea level and upper ocean temperature variability and trends; Cook Islands regional results and perspective. Climatic Change, doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0580-8.


Kamenkovich, I., W. Cheng, C. Schmid, and D. E. Harrison (2011): Effects of eddies on an ocean observing system with profiling floats: Idealized simulations of the Argo array, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C06003, 14, doi:10.1029/2010JC006910.


Carson, M., and D.E. Harrison (2010): Regional interdecadal variability in bias-corrected ocean temperature data. J. Climate, 23(11), doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3121.1, 2847–2855.

Chiodi, A.M. and D.E. Harrison (2010): The effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon on the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Climate, submitted.

Chiodi, A.M., D.E. Harrison, (2010): Characterizing Warm-ENSO Variability in the Equatorial Pacific: An OLR Perspective. J. Climate, 23, 2428–2439, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3030.

Chiodi, A. M., D. E. Harrison, (2010): The Annual Range of Southern Hemisphere SST: Comparison with Surface Heating and Possible Reasons for the High-Latitude Falloff. J. Climate, 23, 1994–2009, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3154.

Harrison, D.E. and A.M. Chiodi (2010): Is the efficiency of the planetary carbon sink decreasing? Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

Lee, T. et. al (2010): Ocean state estimation for climate research. Proceedings, Ocean Observations 2009, Ed. J.Hall, D.E.Harrison and D. Stammer.

Palmer, M., et al (2010): Future observations for monitoring global ocean heat content. Proceedings, Ocean Observations 2009, Ed. J.Hall, D.E.Harrison and D. Stammer.

Rienecker, M. et al (2010): Synthesis and assimilation systems. Essential adjuncts to the global ocean observing system.  Proceedings, Ocean Observations 2009, Ed. J.Hall, D.E.Harrison and D. Stammer.

Stammer, D. et al (2010): Ocean information provided through ensemble ocean syntheses.  Proceedings, Ocean Observations 2009, Ed. J.Hall, D.E.Harrison and D. Stammer.


Harrison, D.E. and A.M. Chiodi (2009): Pre- and Post 97/98 westerly wind events and equatorial Pacific cold tongue warming. J. Climate, 22, 568–581, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2270.

Harrison, D.E., A.M. Chiodi and G.A. Vecchi (2009): Effects of surface forcing on the seasonal cycle of the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Mar. Res. 67, 701-729.

Kamenkovich, I., W. Cheng, E.S. Sarachik, and D.E. Harrison (2009): Simulation of the Argo observing system in a global ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09021, doi:10.1029/2008JC005184.


Carson, M. and D.E.Harrison (2008): Is the upper ocean warming? Comparison of 50yr trends from different approaches. J. Climate, 21, 2259-2268, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI2002.

Chiodi, A.M. and D.E. Harrison (2008): Hurricane alley SST variability in 2005 and 2006. J. Climate. 21, 4710-4722, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2084.


Chiodi, A.M. and D.E. Harrison (2007): Mechanisms of summertime subtropical southern Indian Ocean sea surface temperature variability: on the importance of humidity anomalies and the meridional advection of water vapor. J. Climate, 20, 4835-4852, doi: 10.1175/JCLI4271.

Harrison, D.E. and M. Carson (2007): Is the World Ocean warming?  Upper Ocean Temperature Trends, 1950-2000. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 174-187.


Bennett, A.F, B.S. Chua, H.-E. Ngodock, D.E. Harrison, M.J. McPhaden (2006): Generalized inversion of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) data and the Gent-Cane model of the tropical Pacific. J. Mar. Res., 64, 1–42, doi: 10.1357/002224006776412313.

Bond, N.A. and D.E. Harrison (2006): ENSO’s Effect on Alaska during Opposite Phases of the Arctic Oscillation.U.S. Int. J. Climatol. 26, 1821-1841, doi: 10.1002/joc.1339.

Chiodi and Harrison (2006): Summertime Subtropical SST Variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08601, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024524.

Vecchi, G.A. and D.E. Harrison (2006): The termination of the 1997-98 El Niño: Part I. Mechanisms of oceanic change.  J. Climate, 19, 2633–2646, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3776.


Larkin, N.K. and D.E.Harrison (2005): Global seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies during El Niño autumn and winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32,  L16705, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022860.

Larkin, N.K. and D.E.Harrison (2005): On the definition of El Niño and US seasonal weather anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13705, doi:10.1029/2005GL022738.


Harrison, D.E., A. Knap, T. Malone (2004): Climate and the Marine Environment. World Climate News, 26, 3.

Parker, D., E. Kent, S. Woodruff, D. Dehenauw, D.E. Harrison, T. Manabe, M. Meitus, V. Swail, and S. Worley (2004): The Second JCOMM Workshop on Advances in Marine Climatology (CLIMAR-II). WMO Bulletin, 53(2), 157-159.

Vecchi, G.A., A. Rosati and D.E.Harrison (2004): Setting the timing of El Niño Termination. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85(8), 1065-1066, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3776.

Vecchi, G.A, and D.E. Harrison (2004): Interannual Indian Rainfall Variability and Indian Ocean SST. J.Climate. In Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, C. Wang, S.-P. Xie, and J.A. Carton(eds.), Geophysical Monograph 147, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 247–260.


Vecchi, G.A. and D.E. Harrison (2003): On the termination of the 2002-03 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1964ff, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017564


Harrison, D.E. and N.K. Larkin (2002): Cold events: Anti-El Niño? In: M.H. Glantz (Ed.), Facts and Speculation about La Niña and Its Societal Impacts. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 237-241. 

Harrison, D.E., R. Romea and S.H. Hankin (2002): Central equatorial Pacific zonal currents I:  The Sverdrup balance, nonlinearity and tropical instability waves. I. Annual mean dynamics. J. Marine Research., 59, 895-919, doi: 10.1357/00222400160497706.

Harrison, D.E. R. Romea, and G. A. Vecchi (2002): Central equatorial Pacific zonal currents II:  The seasonal cycle and the boreal spring surface eastward surge. J. Marine Res., 59, 921-948, doi: 10.1357/00222400160497715.

Larkin, N.K., and D.E. Harrison (2002): ENSO Warm (El Niño) and Cold (La Niña) Event Lifecycles:  Ocean surface anomaly patterns, their symmetries, asymmetries, and implications.  J. Climate, 15,  1118-1140.

Nowlin, W.D., N. Smith, D.E. Harrison, C. Koblinski, and G. Needler (2002): An integrated, Sustained Ocean Observing System. In Observing the Ocean In the 21st Century, Koblinsky, C.J., and N.R. Smith, editors, GODAE and Australian Bureau of Meteorology Publishers, Melbourne, 29-38

Reynolds, R.E.,  D.E. Harrison and D. Stokes (2002): Climate Sea Surface Temperature analysis. In  Observing the Ocean In the 21st Century, Koblinsky, C.J., and N.R. Smith, editors,  GODAE and Australian Bureau of Meteorology Publishers, Melbourne,  87-101

Smith, N., et. al. (2002): The Upper Ocean Thermal Network. In Observing the Ocean In the 21st Century, Koblinsky, C.J., and N.R. Smith, editors, GODAE and Australian Bureau of Meteorology Publishers, Melbourne, 259-285

Vecchi, G.A. and  D.E. Harrison (2002): Southwest Monsoon breaks and sub-seasonal SST variability in the Bay of Bengal. J. Climate, 15,  1485-1493.


Harrison, D.E. and G.A. Vecchi (2001):  January 1999 Indian Ocean cooling event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3717-3720.

Harrison, D.E. and G.A. Vecchi (2001): El Niño and La Niña equatorial Pacific thermocline depth and sea surface temperature anomalies, 1986–1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1051–1054, doi:10.1029/1999GL011307.

Harrison, D.E. and N.K. Larkin (2001): Comments on ‘Comparison of 1997-98 US temperature and precipitation anomalies to historical ENSO Warm Phases’.  J. Climate, 14, 1894-1895.

Larkin, N.K. and D.E. Harrison (2001): Tropical Pacific ENSO Cold Events, 1946-1995;  SST, SLP and Surface Wind Composite Anomalies.  J. Climate, 14, 3904-3931.

Murphy, P.P., Y. Nojiri, D.E. Harrison, and N.K. Larkin (2001): Scales of spatial variability for surface ocean pCO2 in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea: Toward a sampling strategy. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1047–1050, doi:10.1029/2000GL012375.


Bennett, A.F, B.S. Chua, D.E. Harrison and M.J. McPhaden (2000): Generalized Inversion of Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) data and a coupled model of the Tropical Pacific.  II:  the 1995-96 La Niña and 1997-98 El Niño. J. Climate, 13, 2770-2785, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2770:GIOTAO>2.0.CO;2.

Bond, N.A., and D.E. Harrison (2000): The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, air-sea interaction and central north Pacific winter atmospheric regimes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 731–734, doi:10.1029/1999GL010847.

Harrison, D.E. , G.A. Vecchi and R. Weisberg (2000): Eastward surface jets in the central equatorial Pacific, November 1991-March 1992. J. Marine Research, 58, 735-754, doi: 10.1357/002224000321358882.

Loukos, H., Vivier, F., Murphy, P., and D.E. Harrison (2000): Interannual variability of equatorial Pacific CO2 fluxes estimated from temperature and salinity data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1735-1738, doi:10.1029/1999GL011013.

Vecchi, G. and D.E. Harrison (2000): Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, El Niño and Equatorial Westerly Wind Events.  J. Climate, 13, 1814-1830.


Harrison, D.E. and G. Vecchi (1999): On the termination of El NiñoGeophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1593-1596, doi:10.1029/1999GL900316.


Bennett, A.F., B.S. Chua, D.E. Harrison and M.J. McPhaden (1998): Generalized  Inversion of tropical atmosphere-ocean data and a coupled model of  the tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 11, 1768-1792.

Craig, A.P., J.L. Bullister, D.E. Harrison, R.M. Chervin, A.J. Semtner, Jr. (1998) A comparison of temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbon observations with results from a high resolution 3-Dimensional global ocean model.  J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1099-1119, doi:10.1029/97JC02394.

Harrison, D.E. and N.K. Larkin (1998):  El Niño-Southern Oscillation surface temperature and wind anomalies, 1946-1993. Rev Geophysics, 36, 353-399.

Harrison, D.E. and N.K Larkin (1998): Seasonal US Temperature and Precipitation Anomalies Associated with El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3959-3962, doi:10.1029/1998GL900061.

Loukos, H., B. Frost, D.E. Harrison and J. Murray (1998): An ecosystem model with iron limitation of primary and export production in the equatorial Pacific at 140W. Deep-Sea Research Part II, vol. 44, No 4-10, 2221-2250, doi: 10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00059-3.

Murphy, P.P., D.E. Harrison, R. Feely, T. Takahashi, R. Weiss (1998): Variability of delta pCO2 in the subarctic North Pacific:  a comparison of results from four expeditions.  Tellus, 50B, 185-204.

Stockdale, T.N, A.J. Busalacchi, D.E. Harrison, and R. Seager (1998): Ocean Modeling for ENSOJ. Geophys. Res., 103, C7, 14325-14356.


Harrison, D.E. and G. A. Vecchi (1997):  Surface westerly wind events in the  tropical Pacific 1986-1995. J. Climate, 10, 3131-3156.

Harrison, D.E. and N.K. Larkin (1997): The Darwin Sea Level Pressure record,  1876-1996; Evidence for climate change? Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1779-1782, doi:10.1029/97GL01789.


Hankin,S., D.E.Harrison, J.Osborne, J.Davison and K. O'Brien (1996) A  Strategy and a Tool, FERRET, for Closely integrated visualization  and analysis. J. Visualization and Computer Animation, 7, 149-157.

Harrison, D.E. (1996): Vertical velocity variability in the tropical Pacific - a circulation model perspective for JGOFSDeep-Sea Research II, 43, 687-705, doi: 10.1016/0967-0645(96)00026-4.

Harrison, D.E. and N.S. Larkin (1996): The COADS sea level pressure signal: A near-global El Niño composite and time series results, 1946-1993.  J. Climate, 9, 3025-3055.

Kessler, W.S., M.C.Spillane, M.J.McPhaden, D.E.Harrison (1996)  Scales of  variability in the equatorial Pacific inferred from the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) array.  J. Climate, 9, 2999-3024.


Harrison, D.E. and A. Craig (1993): Ocean model studies of upper ocean  variability at (0N,160W) during the 1982-83 ENSO; local and remote forcing.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 427-451.


Giese, B.S. and D.E. Harrison (1991): Eastern equatorial Pacific response to three composite westerly wind types.  J. Geophys. Res., 96(Suppl.), 3239- 3249.

Harrison, D.E. (1991):  Equatorial sea surface temperature sensitivity to net surface heat flux:  Some ocean circulation model results.  J. Climate, 4, 539-549.

Harrison, D.E. and B.S. Giese (1991): Episodes of surface westerly winds  as observed from islands in the western tropical Pacific.  J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3221-3237.

Murphy, P.P., R.A. Feely, R.H. Gammon, D.E. Harrison, K.C. Kelly, and L.S. Waterman (1991): Assessment of the air-sea exchange of CO2 in the South Pacific during Austral Autumn. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 455-465, doi:10.1029/91JC02064.


Davison, J. and D.E. Harrison (1990): Comparison of SEASAT scatterometer winds with tropical Pacific observations. J. Geophys. Res., 95, C3, 3403-3410, doi:10.1029/JC095iC03p03403.

Giese, B.S. and D.E. Harrison (1990): Aspects of the Kelvin wave response to episodic wind forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 95, C5, 7289-7312, doi:10.1029/JC095iC05p07289.

Harrison, D.E., B.S. Giese and E.S. Sarachik (1990): Mechanisms of SST change in the equatorial waveguide during the 1982-83 ENSO. J. Climate, 3, 173-188.

Harrison, D.E. and D.S. Luther (1990): Surface winds from tropical Pacific islands:  Climatological statistics.  J. Climate, 3, 251-271.


Harrison, D.E. (1989): Local and remote forcing of ENSO ocean waveguide response. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 691-699.

Harrison, D.E (1989): On climatological monthly mean wind stress and wind stress curl fields over the world ocean.  J. Climate, 2, 57-79.

Harrison, D.E. (1989): Post World War II Trends in Tropical Pacific Trades.  J. Climate, 2, 1561-1563.

Harrison, D.E., and B.S. Giese (1989): Comment on "The response of the equatorial Pacific ocean to a westerly wind burst in May 1986" by McPhaden et al.  J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5024-5029, doi:10.1029/JC094iC04p05024.

Harrison, D.E., W. Kessler and B. Giese (1989): Hindcasts of the 1982-83 El Niño: Thermal and dynamic height variability along the ship of opportunity XBT tracks.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 397-418.


Harrison, D.E. and B.S. Giese (1988): Remote westerly wind forcing of the eastern equatorial Pacific; some model results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15,  804-807, doi:10.1029/GL015i008p00804.


Gutzler, D.S. and D.E. Harrison (1987): The structure and evolution of seasonal wind anomalies over the near-equatorial eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 169-192 .

Harrison, D.E. (1987): Monthly mean island surface winds in the central tropical Pacific and El NiñoMon. Wea. Rev., 115, 3133-3145.


Harrison, D.E. and A.J. Semtner, Jr. (1986): On the generation of deep mean flows; some numerical experiments.  J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1569-1573, doi:10.1029/JC091iC02p02569.

Harrison, D.E. and D. Gutzler(1986): Variability of monthly-averaged surface and 850 mb winds at tropical Pacific islands. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 285-294, 1986.

Molinari, R.L., S. Garzoli, E. Katz, D.E. Harrison, and P. Richardson (1986): A synthesis of the first GARP global experiment (FGGE) in the equatorial Atlantic ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 16, 91-112, doi: 10.1016/0079-661(86)90008-X.


Fung, I., D.E. Harrison, and A. Lacis (1984):  On the variability of the net long-wave radiation at the ocean surface.  Rev. Geophys.& Space  Phys., 22, 177-194, doi:10.1029/RG022i002p00177.

Harrison, D.E. (1984): The appearance of sustained equatorial surface westerlies during the 1982 Pacific warm event.  Science, 224, 1099-1102, doi: 10.1126/science.224.4653.1099.

Harrison, D.E. and M.A. Cane (1984): Changes in the ocean during the 1982-83 Pacific Warm Event. Oceanus, 27, 21-28.

Harrison, D.E. and P.S. Schopf (1984): Kelvin wave induced anomalous advection and the onset of SST warming in El Niño events.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 923-933.

Harrison, D.E. and V.J. Cardone (1984):  Tropical Atlantic wind field  variations during SEQUAL-I.  Preliminary Results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 722-725, doi:10.1029/GL011i008p00722.

Luther, D.S. and D.E. Harrison (1984): Observing long-period fluctuations of surface winds in the tropical Pacific; initial results from island data.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 285-302.


Harrison, D.E. and R.H. Heinmiller (1983): Upper ocean mesoscale temperature variability in the Sargasso Sea, July 1977-July 1978. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 859-872.

Harrison, D.E., W.J. Emery, J.P. Dugan, and B-C. Li (1983): Mid-latitude mesoscale temperature variability in six multi-ship XBT surveys. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 648-662.

Holland, W.R., D.E. Harrison, and A.J. Semtner, Jr. (1983): Eddy-resolving numerical models of large-scale ocean circulation.  Eddies in Marine Science, 377-403, Springer-Verlag.

Luther, D.S., D.E. Harrison, and R. Knox (1983):  Zonal winds in the central equatorial Pacific and the onset of El NiñoScience, 222, 327-330, doi: 10.1126/science.222.4621.327.

Schopf, P.S. and D.E. Harrison:  On equatorial Kelvin waves and El Niño (1983): I. Influence of initial states on wave-induced currents and warming. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 936-948.


Harrison, D.E. (1982): On deep mean flow generation mechanisms and the abyssal circulation of numerical model gyres. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 6, 135-152, doi: 10.1016/0377-0265(82)90021-5.

Harrison, D.E. and S. Stalos (1982): On the wind-driven ocean circulation. J. Mar. Res., 40, 773-791.


Harrison, D.E. (1981): Eddy lateral vorticity transport and the equilibrium of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 1154-1159.

Harrison, D.E. and W.R. Holland (1981): Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 190-208.


Harrison, D.E. (1980): Dissipation mechanisms and the importance of eddies in model ocean circulations.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 900-905.

Harrison, D.E. (1980): Some Eulerian scale analysis results; eddy terms in the mean heat, momentum and vorticity equations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 1221-1227.

Harrison, D.E. and A.R. Robinson (1980): Boundary forced planetary waves: a simple mid-ocean response to strong current meandering.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 919-929.


Harrison, D.E. (1979): Eddies and the general circulation of numerical  model oceans; an energetic perspective.  Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 17, 969-979.

Harrison, D.E. (1979): On the equilibrium linear basin response to fluctuating winds, and mesoscale motions in the ocean.  J. Geophys. Res., 84, 1221-1224, doi:10.1029/JC084iC03p01221.

Robinson, A.R., D.E. Harrison and D.B. Haidvogel (1979): Mesoscale eddies and general ocean circulation models.  Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 3, 143-180.


Harrison, D.E. (1978): On the diffusion parameterization of mesoscale eddy effects from a numerical ocean experiment.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8, 914-918.

Harrison, D.E. and A.R. Robinson (1978): Energy analysis of open regions of turbulent flows: mean eddy energetics of a numerical ocean circulation experiment.  Dyn. of Atmos. and Oceans, 2, 185-211.

MODE Group, The Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (1978):   Deep-Sea Res., 25, 859-910.


Harrison, D.E. (1977): On mesoscale-mean field interaction in the ocean, Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard Univ.

Robinson, A.R., D.E. Harrison, Y. Mintz and A.J. Semtner, Jr. (1977): Eddies and the general circulation of an idealized oceanic gyre: a wind and thermally driven primitive equation numerical experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7, 182-207.

Other Publications:

Subjective mapping and quasi-geostrophic wave interpretation of MODE-O real time density data (with Flierl, McWilliams and Robinson), MODE Hot Line News, No. 42, 1973.

Forcing by fluctuating winds, D.E.Harrrison, p. 136 "Report of the MODE-1 Dynamics Group; Dynamics and the Analysis of  MODE-1", 1975.

Mesoscale eddies and the general circulation of numerical model gyres(with Robinson, Mintz, Haney, Han and Takano), p. 182. "Report of the MODE-1 Dynamics Group; Dynamics and the Analysis of  MODE-1", 1975.

Eddy kinetic energy analysis over open regions of a model ocean.  D.E. Harrison and A.R. Robinson.  POLYMODE News, No. 34, 1978.

The Fuglister atlas and mesoscale temperature variability.  D.E. Harrison.  POLYMODE News No. 45, 1978.

The importance of length scales of variation of eddy statistics. D.E. Harrison, POLYMODE News, No. 62, 1979.

POLYMODE synoptic XBT mapping (with Metcalf, Baranov, et al.): POLYMODE  News, No. 64, 1979.

Report of the EPOCS workshop on tropical surface winds.  D. Halpern and  D.E. Harrison, July 1979.  Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Newsletter, U.W.

Eddy lateral vorticity transport as an equilibrium mechanism for wind-driven gyres.  D.E. Harrison, Ocean Modelling, No. 33, 1980.

Review: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics for Oceanographers by G.J. Von SchwindBull. Am. Met. Soc., 63, 313, 1982.

Intercomparison of Nov. 1979 Pacific Tropical Surface Winds (with  D. Halpern et al.)  MIT Dept. Met. and Phys. Oceanog.  Report 82-1, 1982.

On the onset of SST warming in the 1982 Equatorial Pacific warm event. D.E. Harrison and P.S.  Schopf.  Trop. Ocean-Atmos. Newsletter, 21, 1983.

Recent work and thoughts on eddy-mean flow interaction. pp17-32 in  "The role of eddies in the general ocean circulation", Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics special publication, 1983.  Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.

Ocean surface wind stress.  D.E. Harrison. pp 95-115 in Large Scale Oceanographic Experiments and Satellites. Eds. C. Gautier and M. Fieux, 1984.

The seasonal cycle of SST, surface heat flux, surface winds and surface currents in the equatorial Pacific and Indian oceans, in Stanstead  Proceedings-1984, Published in Met. #128, Dept. Meteorology, McGillUniv., 1984.

Interannual variations of SST in the Pacific ocean - the role of anomalous advection, in Stanstead Proceedings 1984, Published in Met. #128, Dept. Meteorology, McGill Univ., 1984

Equatorial Sea surface temperature sensitivity to wind forcing.  pp 413-419 in "Further progress in equatorial oceanography". Katz and Witte, Eds, Nova Univ. Press, Ft. Lauderdale, FL., 1987.

Ocean General Circulation Model Hindcasts of the 1982-83 El Niño.  D.E.Harrison (1988): pp 179-185 in Japan-US Workshop on the ENSO phenomenon, eds T. Matsuno and M.L.  Blackmon Meteorological Research Report 88-1, Division of Meteorology, Geophysical Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, March 1988.

Recent tropical Pacific surface wind studies.  D.E. Harrison (1988): pp 94-99 in Japan-US Workshop on the ENSO phenomenon, eds T. Matsuno and M.L Blackmon Meteorological Research Report 88-1, Division of Meteorology, Geophysical Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, March 1988.

Near-Dateline island wind variability and ENSO. D.E. Harrison (1988): pp. 141-155 in  "Proceedings of the US TOGA Western Pacific Air-Sea interaction Workshop".  US TOGA 8.  Published by U.C.A.R., Boulder, CO  80307.

Model-Data comparisons for the 1982-83 El Niño:  The XBT tracks.  D.E. Harrison, W.S. Kessler, B.S. Giese (1988): NOAA/ERL/PMEL Tech Memo  #79.  NTIS # PB88-221668.

Use of in-situ data for flux validation. D.E. Harrison II.3.1TII.3.8 in WMO WCRP-23(WMO TD #304). WOCE surface flux determinations - A strategy for in-situ measurements (1989).

A day-to-day comparison of SEASAT scatterometer with winds observed fromislands in the tropical Pacific. J. Davison and D.E. Harrison (1989). NOAA Tech. Memo, ERL/PMEL-91, 71 pp.  NTIS PB90-158791.

Tropical Ocean Circulation Models: Sensitivity to Fluxes. "Proceedings of the International TOGA Scientific Conference", pp 169-177 (1991).

FERRET:  A computer visualization and analysis tool for gridded data. Hankin, S., J. Davison,   K. O'Brien, and D.E. Harrison (1992).  NOAA Data Report ERL PMEL-38, 164 pp.

Western and central tropical Pacific surface westerly winds, July 9,1987-June 30, 1988.  From the R. Atlas et al analysis of SSM/I  results.  Harrison, D.E., S. Hankin, J. Davison and K.    O'Brien. NOAA Tech. Memo, NOAA/ERL/PMEL-94, NTIS #PB92-142645 (1992).

Critical Review of "A Federal Plan for Managing Global Change Date and Information," D.E. Harrison.  Data Forum, Jan. 1992, National Academy Press, p. 45-46.

FERRET: A Mathematica-style Visualization  and Analysis Tool for Gridded Oceanographic and Meteorological Data.Hankin, S., and D.E. Harrison.  Ninth International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, 73rd AMS Annual Meeting, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California, 168-171. (1993)

Remote and local visualization and analysis with the Ferret program. Hankin, S., D.E. Harrison, J. Osborne, J. Davison, and K. O'Brien 12th International Conference on Interactive    Information and Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, Jan. 28-Feb. 2, 1996, Atlanta, GA ,AGU, 139-144 (1996)

Live Access to Climate Data - A Portable Web Server for Large Gridded Data Sets S.Hankin, J.Davison, D.E.Harrison, K. O'Brien, J.Callahan (1996)

Uncertainties in calculating region fluxes for the subarctic North Pacific: Results from a study of delta(pCO2) variability.  P.Murphy, D.E.Harrison, R.A.Feely, T.Takahashi, R.F. Wiese, and R.H.Gammon. Proceedings of the symposium on the Biogeochemical Processes in the North Pacific (1997)

Wind Fields in the Tropical Pacific, 1982-1995. p 25-33 Harrison and McDermott. Second Session of the CLIVAR Upper Ocean Panel, and Joint Workshop with CLIVAR NEG-1. "Assessment of  the Pacific Observing System for Analyses, Model-testing and El Niño Forecasts". Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, 21-24 October, 1996. WCRP Informal Report #7/1997;  ICPO Publication Series #9. (1997)

An atlas of monthly mean wind products over the ocean:  NCEP, ECMWF and NAVY,  1985-1995. D.A. McDermott, D.E.Harrison and N.K.Larkin.  NOAA Technical Memo ERL PMEL-110. NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road. Springfield, VA 22161. (1997)

An atlas of westerly wind events in the tropical Pacific, 1986-1995. G.A.Vecchi and  D.E.Harrison. NOAA Technical Memo ERL PMEL-109. NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road. Springfield, VA 22161. (1997)

A portable web server for gridded (model) data (creating  culture of data interchange). Hankin, S., E. Harrison, J. Davison, K. O'Brien, and J. Callahan  (1997): Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology, AMS, 2-7 February 1997, Long Beach, CA 187-188

Improving Web access to gridded data: Java tools for climate data servers. Callahan, J., S. Hankin, and J. Davison (1997): Proceedings of he 13th International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology, AMS, 2-7 February 1997, Long Beach, CA, 189-191.

Some Sampling Issues for OOPC and GOOS.  D.E.Harrison.  OOPC workshop on Ocean Time Series, Johns Hopkins University, March 1997. (1998)

The Tao Array:  History, Present, Prospects.  D.E.Harrison.  OOPC workshop on Ocean Time Series, Johns Hopkins University, March 1997. (1998)

A Configurable Web Server for Gridded Data: A Framework for Collaboration, 14th international Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydology, pp 417-41 Hankin, Steve, J. Davison, J. Callahan, D.E.Harrison, and K. O'Brien (1998):

Westerly Wind Events and El Niño.  D.E.Harrison and G. VecchiEuroClivar Workshop on Scale Interactions and ENSOJussieu, Sept. 1998 (1999)

Climate Requirements for SST.  D.E. Harrison.  GCOS/OOPC Workshop on Sea Surface Temperature Variability. Lamont, Nov. 1998 (1999)

Ferret and the live access server: Analysis and  visualization on the desktop and on the Web.  Hankin, S., D.E. Harrison, J. Sirott, A. Manke, J. Callahan, J. Davison, and K. O'Brien (1999): Earth Systems Monitor, 9, March 1999, 10–13.

Time and space scales of pCO2 variability in the North Pacific Ocean. Murphy, P.P., D.E. Harrison, J. Zeng, Y. Nojiri, and C.S. Wong (1999): 2nd International Symposium on CO2 in the Oceans, the 12th Global Environment Tsukuba, 18–22 January 1999, Tsukuba, Japan, 135–140.

An integrated, sustained ocean observing system.  Nowlin Jr., W.D., N. Smith, E. Harrison, C. Koblinsky, and G. Needler (2000): in Proceedings of the International Conference on The Ocean Observing System for Climate, 18–22 October 1999, Saint-Raphael, France,  Session 5C, 8 pp., 1999

The role of XBT sampling in the ocean thermal network.Smith, N.R., D.E. Harrison, R. Bailey, O. Alves, T. Delcroix, K. Hanawa, B. Keeley, G. Meyers, B. Molinari, and D. Roemmich (2000 in Proceedings of the International Conference on The Ocean Observing System for Climate, 18–22 October 1999, Saint-Raphael, France, Session 2E, 26 pp. 1999

Implementing the Pacific Basin Extended Climate Study (PBECS).  Davis, R.E., W.S. Kessler, R. Lukas, R.A. Weller, D.W. Behringer, D.R. Cayan, D.B. Chelton, C.Eriksen, S. Esbensen, R.A. Fine, I. Fukumori, M.C. Gregg, E. Harrison, G.C. Johnson, T. Lee, N.J. Mantua, J.P. McCreary, M.J. McPhaden, J.C. McWilliams, A.J. Miller, H.Mitsudera, P.P. Niiler, B. Qiu, D. Raymond, D. Roemmich, D.L. Rudnick, N. Schneider, P.S. Schopf, D. Stammer, L. Thompson, and W.B.  White (2000): U.S. CLIVAR Office Report, Version 2000.2, 123 pp.

Harrison, D.E. (2005): Observing system research studies. The State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System for Climate, Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2004, NOAA/OGP/Office of Climate Observation, Section 3.19a, 187–189

Harrison, D.E. and Carson (2008): Upper ocean warming: Spatial patterns of trends and interdecadal variability. NOAA Tech. Memo. OAR PMEL-138.

Chiodi, A.M. and D.E.Harrison (2008):  Characterizing the interannual variability of the equatorial Pacific:  an OLR Perspective.  NOAA Tech. Memo. OAR PMEL-140.

D.E. Harrison1, Mike Johnson2, Candyce Clark2, Graeme Ball3, Mathieu Belbeoch4, Howard Freeland5, Gustavo Goni6, Maria Hood7, Michael McPhaden1, David Meldrum8, Mark Merrifield9, Dean Roemmich10, Chris Sabine1, Uwe Send10, Hester Viola4, Robert Weller11  (2009): The In-Situ Global Ocean Observing System – Progress since OceanObs1999GODAE Final Symposium.

Observation Needs for Climate Information, Prediction and Application: Capabilities of Existing and Future Observing Systems, Original Research Article, T.R. Karl, H.J. Diamond, S. Bojinski, J.H. Butler, H. Dolman, W. Haeberli, D.E. Harrison, A. Nyong, S. Rösner, G. Seiz, K. Trenberth, W. Westermeyer, J. Zillman, (2010), Pages 192-205, Procedia Environmental Sciences (2010), World Climate Conference – 3, Geneva, 31 August-04 September 2009, Edited by M.V.K. Sivakumar, Volume 1.

Observation Needs for Climate Services and Research, Original Research Article, M.J. Manton, A. Belward, D.E. Harrison, A. Kuhn, P. Lefale, S. Rösner, A. Simmons, W. Westermeyer, J. Zillman, (2010), Pages 184-191, Procedia Environmental Sciences (2010), World Climate Conference – 3, Geneva, 31 August-04 September 2009, Edited by M.V.K. Sivakumar, Volume 1.