The International Polar Years
An International Polar Year or IPY is a year or so during which many nations coordinate their Polar expeditions, observations and analyses.
Click image for more photo information and credits
The First IPY was from 1881 to 1884.
The Fourth IPY was from 2007-2008.
The First IPY, from 1881 to 1884, involved 11 nations and was the first coordinated international polar research activity ever undertaken, inspiring subsequent international research programs. There was a Second IPY in 1932-1933 involving 40 nations, and a Third IPY in 1957-1958 (67 nations) that was also called the International Geophysical Year or IGY because it included research outside the Polar areas. Planning for the Fourth IPY, 2007-2008, started in 2004.
IPY measurements can be taken for more than a year. Although international coordination is maximized during the IPY, additional field expeditions or observations may be mounted by various nations in the year or two preceding or following the IPY. Therefore, the IPY may in fact encompass several years. The polar years’ emphasize the importance of the Polar Regions to global climate and of cooperative international research.
Read about NOAA Activities in IPY March 2007-March 2009
- International IPY website
- IPY-1 1881-1884
- IPY-2 1932-1933 (University of Saskatchewan)
- IPY-3 /IGY 1957-1958 (National Academy of Sciences)
- eGY /Electronic Geophysical Year 2007-208 (egy.org)
- USGS IPY home page
- IPY and Polar Research resources and references from the NOAA Library (PDF) or Word document
First IPY (1881-1884)
- First IPY - Images and on-line data from 1881-1884
- The First International Polar Year (1982-83): A big science experience with small science equipment - from the International Commission on History of Meteorology
Second IPY (1932-1933)
- IPY-2 1932-1933 University of Saskatchewan
- Ionosondes UK Solar system Data Center
- University of Alaska (Chapman)
Third IPY or IGY (1957-1958)
- IGY memorabilia - Dave Meier
- About IGY from NOAA ESRL GMD
- IGY from NASA history archive
- IGY from Columbia Encyclopaedia via infoplease.com
- ionospheric measurements
- from the Glasgow digital library
- IGY at the South Pole - from www.southpolestation.com
- International Polar Year website - from International Council for Science and World Meteorological Organization
- National Science Foundation IPY news site
- National Science Foundation IPY site
- National Academy of Sciences US IPY site
- NOAA Activities for Fourth IPY
- US Senate resolution on IPY 2007-2008
- Canada IPY website
- Denmark and Greenland research activities