Kuroshio Extension Observatory
Toroid Buoy Hull (2004-2006) High-Latitude Buoy (HLB) Hull (2007 - Present)
As of October 19, 2017, the KEO buoy is adrift. Real-time position information is available here. Hourly GPS positions are plotted below.
We are seeking help from any ship of opportunity that might be available to recover the drifting buoy. There is at least 450m of wire still attached below the buoy, and likely more mooring line in the water. Ship requirements to recover the buoy can be found here. Please contact Jennifer.Keene@noaa.gov for more information.
Last Anchor Position: 32° 25.24'N, 144° 31.83'E
Nominal Location: 32.3°N, 144.6°E
Mooring Type: Slack-Line
Watch Circle: >5km Radius
Avoidance Area: Ships working in the area are requested to observe an avoidance area of at least 4NM radius (7.5km) from the stated anchor position.
The KEO mooring has a large scope, and the anchor position changes with each deployment. When using KEO data in scientific analyses, it may be appropriate to consider the actual position of the buoy rather than its nominal position. The nominal depths should NOT be used for sensor depths. Instead, the time-varying subsurface pressure of the sensor should be used to determine the measurement depth.
Deployment Dates and Positions
Refer to the mooring diagrams (links) in the table below for exact specifications of each deployment. The positions noted in the table indicate the center of the watch circle. For KEO, the buoy position can be more than 5km from the listed position.
|Mooring||Latitude||Longitude||Deployment Date||Recovery Date||Water Depth (m)|
|32° 21.0'N||144° 38.2'E||June 16, 2004||May 28, 2005
|32° 21.0'N||144° 38.2'E||May 28, 2005
|Nov. 10, 2005||5685|
|32° 24.4'N||144° 35.0'E||May 26, 2006||May 6, 2007
(srfc insts only)
|32° 18.90'N||144° 32.40'E||Sept. 26, 2007||Sept. 14, 2008||5681|
|32° 27.36'N||144° 36.54'E||Sept. 13, 2008||Sept. 5, 2009||5702|
|32° 18.82'N||144° 32.80'E||Sept. 4, 2009||Sept. 30, 2010||5710|
|32° 25.60'N||144° 34.60'E||Sept. 29, 2010||Nov. 14, 2011||~5710|
|32° 19.00’N||144° 32.50’E||Nov. 14, 2011||July 5, 2012||5705|
|32° 24.98’N||144° 29.85’E||July 4, 2012||June 28, 2013||5774|
|32° 15.37'N||144° 34.38'E||July 4, 2013||June 26, 2014||5700|
|32° 23.11'N||144° 32.12'E||June 25, 2014||Sept. 7, 2015||5720|
|32° 23.29'N||144° 32.61'E||Sept. 7, 2015||Aug. 1, 2016||5722|
|32° 17.31'N||144° 36.50'E||July 31, 2016||July 16, 2017||5640|
|32° 25.24'N||144° 31.83'E||July 15, 2017||Currently Deployed||5702|
The KE-003 mooring broke free from its anchor on April 16, 2007, and was adrift. The break occurred at the bridle, so no subsurface instruments were recovered. High-resolution data are only available from the recovered surface and meteorological instruments. Data delivered through the Mooring Data page are truncated at the time when the buoy moved outside its watch circle, but data from the drifting period are still available. Click here for daily averaged data, and click here for high resolution data from the drifting period.
The KE-004 designation was given to a JAMSTEC mooring deployed near the KEO site in 2007. The numbered designations for the OCS moorings go from KE-003 (2006) to KE-005 (2007).
The KE-006 and KE-010 (4/2/2013) moorings dragged their anchors during the deployment, but stayed within the nominal KEO site box. The lat/lon limits for valid data from the KEO site are:
NW = 32°39'N, 144°21'E NE = 32°39'N, 144°45'E
SW = 32°06'N, 144°21'E SE = 32° 06'N, 144°45'E
The KE-010 mooring broke free of its anchor on June 7, 2013 and was recovered June 28, 2013, circulating in an eddy northwest of the nominal anchor location.
The following storms have passed over or near the KEO mooring, and data from those periods are available. If the primary sensor failed due to storm damage, data from the secondary, or in some cases tertiary, sensor have been included in the data set. These substitutions are indicated in the quality flags.
- Tropical Cyclone Choi-Wan - 9/19/09
- Typhoon Ewiniar - 9/28/12
- Typhoon Pabuk - 9/26/13
- Typhoon Wipha - 10/15/13
- Typhoon Francisco - 10/26/13
- Tropical Cyclone Fengshen - 9/9/14
- Typhoon Kammuri - 9/28/14
- Typhoon Nuri - 11/6/14
- Typhoon Atsani - 8/23/15
- Tropical Cyclone Omais - 8/7/16
- Tropical Storm Lionrock - 8/29/16
- Typhoon Sanvu - 9/2/17