Feature Publication Archive
McPhaden, M. J., A. J. Busalacchi, and D. L. T. Anderson, 2010: A TOGA Retrospective. Oceanography, 23, 86-103.
McPhaden, M.J., et al, In: Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09:Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D.Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.
McPhaden, M.J., 2004: Evolution of the 2002-03 El Niño. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 677-695.
An El Niño of moderate intensity developed in the tropical Pacific in 2002/03. This event, though not as strong as the 1997/98 El Niño, had significant impacts on patterns of weather variability worldwide. The evolution of the 2002/03 El Niño is documented through comprehensive satellite and in situ observations from the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Observing System. These observations underscore the importance of both episodic atmospheric forcing and large-scale low-frequency ocean–atmosphere interactions in the development of the event.