Feature Publication Archive
McPhaden, M.J., et al, In: Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09:Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D.Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.
McPhaden, M.J., 2004: Evolution of the 2002-03 El Niño. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 677-695.
An El Niño of moderate intensity developed in the tropical Pacific in 2002/03. This event, though not as strong as the 1997/98 El Niño, had significant impacts on patterns of weather variability worldwide. The evolution of the 2002/03 El Niño is documented through comprehensive satellite and in situ observations from the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Observing System. These observations underscore the importance of both episodic atmospheric forcing and large-scale low-frequency ocean–atmosphere interactions in the development of the event.
McPhaden, M.J., 2002: El Niño and La Niña: Causes and Global Consequences. In: Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Vol 1, John Wiley and Sons, LTD., Chichester, UK, p. 353-370.
McPhaden, M.J., et al. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century. Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia, 231-246 (2001)
This paper reviews contributions of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Observing System to improved detection, monitoring, forecasting, and understanding of ENSO-related climate swings, with emphasis on the 1997–98 El Niño and subsequent La Niña. Highlights include detecting the rapid onset and sudden demise of the 1997–98 El Niño, initializing and verifying ENSO model forecasts, and documenting the importance of intraseasonal timescale variations in affecting the evolution of the... more »