Feature Publication Archive
This graph shows the wind stress, heat flux, and evaporation/precipitation measured at the 15°N, 90°E RAMA mooring during the passage of cyclone Titli between September - October, 2018. The wind stress magnitude measured at the mooring increased from nearly zero to about 0.35 N m−2 and wind speed increased by 12 m s−1 in 4 days as the cyclone passed about 200 km to the southwest of the mooring on 9 October 2018 (part a). Click on image to enlarge and see the full graph.
Jarugula, S. L., & McPhaden, M. J. (2022). Ocean mixed layer response to two post-monsoon cyclones in the Bay of Bengal in 2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127, e2022JC018874 https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JC018874
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is characterized by a shallow (∼10–20 m deep) fresh layer associated with 40–60 m deep warm near-surface layer during the post-monsoon season (October–November). We use hourly observations from a moored buoy at 15°N, 90°E along with satellite and ocean analysis data sets to understand the evolution of the near-surface layer during the passage of two category-3 cyclonic storms: Cyclone Titli (7–11 October 2018) and cyclone Gaja (10–15 November 2018). The mooring was ∼200 km away to the right of the two cyclone tracks. A 15 day (22 September–7 October) break in the Indian summer monsoon resulted in clear skies, calm winds, and sea surface temperature warming (SST) by... more »
Key developments in understanding El Niño–Southern Oscillation response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing.
Cai, W., A. Santoso, M. Collins, B. Dewitte, C. Karamperidou, J.-S. Kug, M. Lengaigne, M.J. McPhaden, M.F. Stuecker, A.S. Taschetto, A. Timmermann, L. Wu, S.-W. Yeh, G. Wang, B. Ng, F. Jia, Y. Yang, J. Ying, X.-T. Zheng, T. Bayr, J.R. Brown, A. Capotondi, K.M. Cobb, B. Gan, T. Geng, Y.-G. Ham, F.-F. Jin, H.-S. Jo, X. Li, X. Lin, S. McGregor, J.-H. Park, K. Stein, K. Yang, L. Zhang, and W. Zhong (2021): Changing El Niño-Southern Oscillation in a warming climate. Nature Rev. Earth Environ., doi: 10.1038/s43017-021-00199-z.
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which originates in the tropical Pacific ocean through feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere, has highly consequential global impacts that motivate the need to better understand its responses to anthropogenic warming. This review article is in part a condensation of highlights from the recent AGU book published in November 2020 entitled "El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate”. The article synthesizes advances in observed and projected changes of multiple aspects of ENSO, including the processes behind such changes. As in previous syntheses, it describes an inter-model consensus for increased future... more »
Satellite sea surface temperature departure for October 2015 over the Pacific. Orange-red colors indicate above normal temperatures, indicative of an El Niño condition. The 2015-16 El Niño was the first extreme El Niño of the 21st century and among the three strongest El Niños on record. Credit: NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)
El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate, 2020. American Geophysical Union, M. J. McPhaden, A. Santoso, W. Cai (Editors). Washington DC, 528pp. Published online 2 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119548164.ch21
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation,
marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO’s dynamics and impacts.
El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to
Volume highlights include:
- Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences
- Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics
- ... more »