Feature Publication Archive
Cover of the June 2023 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Synopsis of the article appears in this issue under the title “Ambushed in Paradise: La Niña Brought Deadly Drought to a Tropical Eden”. Cover art by Sarah Battle (NOAA/PMEL).
McPhaden, M.J. and C. Karamperidou, 2022: La Niña Came to Eden. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(12), E2862-E2877. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0343.1
In July 1929, Dr Friedrich Ritter and Dore Strauch left their spouses and the turmoil of post–World War I Germany for the remote, uninhabited, and rugged volcanic island of Floreana in the Galapagos archipelago. Their dream was to live self-sufficiently in an idyllic tropical setting unspoiled by civilization. Wealthy yachters stopping at Floreana in the early 1930s reported on the couple’s pioneering enterprise to the outside world. The news created a sensation that subsequently attracted other settlers, including a mysterious Viennese faux baroness who quickly sowed discord on the island. Not all the participants in this drama survived though. A prolonged drought gripped the island from 1933 to 1935 leading to food shortages that ultimately claimed the life of Dr. Ritter, a... more »
This graph shows the wind stress, heat flux, and evaporation/precipitation measured at the 15°N, 90°E RAMA mooring during the passage of cyclone Titli between September - October, 2018. The wind stress magnitude measured at the mooring increased from nearly zero to about 0.35 N m−2 and wind speed increased by 12 m s−1 in 4 days as the cyclone passed about 200 km to the southwest of the mooring on 9 October 2018 (part a). Click on image to enlarge and see the full graph.
Jarugula, S. L., & McPhaden, M. J. (2022). Ocean mixed layer response to two post-monsoon cyclones in the Bay of Bengal in 2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127, e2022JC018874 https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JC018874
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is characterized by a shallow (∼10–20 m deep) fresh layer associated with 40–60 m deep warm near-surface layer during the post-monsoon season (October–November). We use hourly observations from a moored buoy at 15°N, 90°E along with satellite and ocean analysis data sets to understand the evolution of the near-surface layer during the passage of two category-3 cyclonic storms: Cyclone Titli (7–11 October 2018) and cyclone Gaja (10–15 November 2018). The mooring was ∼200 km away to the right of the two cyclone tracks. A 15 day (22 September–7 October) break in the Indian summer monsoon resulted in clear skies, calm winds, and sea surface temperature warming (SST) by... more »
Key developments in understanding El Niño–Southern Oscillation response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing.
Cai, W., A. Santoso, M. Collins, B. Dewitte, C. Karamperidou, J.-S. Kug, M. Lengaigne, M.J. McPhaden, M.F. Stuecker, A.S. Taschetto, A. Timmermann, L. Wu, S.-W. Yeh, G. Wang, B. Ng, F. Jia, Y. Yang, J. Ying, X.-T. Zheng, T. Bayr, J.R. Brown, A. Capotondi, K.M. Cobb, B. Gan, T. Geng, Y.-G. Ham, F.-F. Jin, H.-S. Jo, X. Li, X. Lin, S. McGregor, J.-H. Park, K. Stein, K. Yang, L. Zhang, and W. Zhong (2021): Changing El Niño-Southern Oscillation in a warming climate. Nature Rev. Earth Environ., doi: 10.1038/s43017-021-00199-z.
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which originates in the tropical Pacific ocean through feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere, has highly consequential global impacts that motivate the need to better understand its responses to anthropogenic warming. This review article is in part a condensation of highlights from the recent AGU book published in November 2020 entitled "El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate”. The article synthesizes advances in observed and projected changes of multiple aspects of ENSO, including the processes behind such changes. As in previous syntheses, it describes an inter-model consensus for increased future... more »
Satellite sea surface temperature departure for October 2015 over the Pacific. Orange-red colors indicate above normal temperatures, indicative of an El Niño condition. The 2015-16 El Niño was the first extreme El Niño of the 21st century and among the three strongest El Niños on record. Credit: NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)
El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate, 2020. American Geophysical Union, M. J. McPhaden, A. Santoso, W. Cai (Editors). Washington DC, 528pp. Published online 2 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119548164.ch21
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation,
marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO’s dynamics and impacts.
El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to
Volume highlights include:
- Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences
- Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics
- ... more »