Kuroshio Extension Observatory (32.3°N, 144.5°E)

The NOAA Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) moored buoy is located in the recirculation gyre south of the Kuroshio Extension at 32.4°N, 144.6°E . It is an Ocean Climate Station (OCS) mooring that is part of the global network of OceanSITES time series reference sites.  KEO's first deployment was in June 2004. The mooring carries a suite of meteorological sensors to measure winds, air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and solar and longwave radiation; subsurface sensors to monitor upper ocean temperature, salinity, and currents; as well as biogeochemical sensors. This work is supported by NOAA's Ocean Observing and Monitoring Program and Ocean Acidification Program.

On July 11, 2011, a surface seawater pH sensor was added to the KEO mooring. By measuring pH in addition to pCO2, we are able to more accurately and precisely study the changes associated with ocean acidification. All seawater pH observations are shown in the second figure below.

For more information about the mooring and meteorological sensors please visit the PMEL OCS KEO Website.

Finalized Data: National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI.

Plots of surface water and atmospheric CO2 and surface water pH:

Monthly climatology of surface seawater aragonite saturation state (Ω) and pH:

Interactive box plots below are observations binned by month as described in Sutton et al., 2016. Pie charts represent % of observations within each month that fall below the adjustable line. This adjustable line is meant to provide a tool for assessing potential biological thresholds. For example, setting the line to Ωaragonite of ~2.0 would assess monthly exposure of Pacific oyster larvae to sub-lethal chronic effects in regions where these larvae occur naturally or in hatcheries (see studies here and here).

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