|The TAO Implementation
Panel (TIP) was decommissioned in 2001. This web page represents the
status of the panel in its last year of operation, and is maintained
for historical interest. The TAO Panel has been replaced by the new
Tropical Moored Buoy Implementation Panel.
The TAO implementation
Panel (TIP) is responsible for coordinating essential resources needed
to ensure long-term, uninterrupted maintenance of the TAO array.
proceedings and reports
Perth, Australia 2000
France, October 1999
Ivory Coast, November 1998
England, November 1997
India, November 1996
Brazil, September 1995
South Korea, October 1994
The Panel was established
in 1992 as the TOGA-TAO Implementation Panel under auspices of the International
Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program.
At the end of TOGA in 1994, sponsorship shifted jointly to the World Climate
Research Program's study International Climate Variability and Predictability
(CLIVAR), the IOC/WMO/UNEP Global Ocean Observing
System (GOOS) program and the WMO/IOC/UNEP/ICSU Global Climate Observing
System (GCOS) program. TIP became an action group of the WMO/IOC Data
Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP) in 1998. Panel meetings are held yearly
(see TIP proceedings and reports).
The following terms
of reference apply to the TAO Implementation Panel:
- To prepare an
annual operating plan and budget for the TAO array. To coordinate the
technical and logistic support of institutions participating in the
maintenance of the array.
- To ensure the
rapid dissemination of TAO data (in real-time where possible) to serve
both research and operational applications. To promote the utilization
of TAO data in national and international climate research and prediction
- To cooperate with
organizations such as the CLIVAR Upper Ocean Panel and the GOOS/GCOS/WCRP
Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC) to ensure an integrated
approach to observing the climate system in the tropics.
- To report regularly
to the GCOS/GOOS Planning Offices and to the CLIVAR Scientific Steering
Group on the status of the TAO array.
Membership of the TAO
Implementation Panel will be by invitation of the Global Ocean Observing
System Planning Office, based on recommendations made by the TAO Panel
or its sponsors (GOOS/GCOS/CLIVAR).
Categories of membership
- Executive Committee:
One representative from each nation actively supporting the TAO Array.
The TAO Panel chairman and vice-chairman will serve as national representatives
on the executive committee. Responsibilities of the executive committee
include: coordinating intersessional activities, recommending membership
changes, organizing panel meetings, reporting to parent bodies, etc.
Individuals representing institutions (or agencies) that provide resources
such as ships, mooring hardware and/or technician time to maintain the
TAO array; or individuals representing institutions having special expertise
in analysis and/or interpretation of TAO and other ocean-clmate data
Present TAO Panel
M. McPhaden (NOAA/PMEL, chairman)
J. Picaut (IRD/ORSTOM)
Y. Kuroda (JAMSTEC)
W. Kessler (NOAA/PMEL)
K. Kutsuwada (Tokai University)
A. Busalacchi (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center)
J. Servain (IRD/OSTOM)
M. Vianna (INPE)
P. Kumar (National Institute of Oceanography, India)
M. Ji (NOAA/NCEP)
"Support for TAO
implies multi-year contributions of critical resources to the maintenance
and/or expansion of the moored array."
are defined as:
- ship time
- specialized mooring
hardware and/or instrumentation
- grant money for
ongoing rather than one-time support. Multi-year does not necessarily
mean each and every year, however. It is expected that there may be political
and/or economic downturns that can affect a particular country's ability
to contribute on a consistent annual basis. A maximum of three years may
pass with no critical contributions before a country slips off the "supporters"
By the above definition,
the U.S., Japan, and France are all presently supporters.