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The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere observing system: A decade of progress

Michael J. McPhaden,1 Antonio J. Busalacchi,2 Robert Cheney,3 Jean-René Donguy,4 Kenneth S. Gage,5 David Halpern,6 Ming Ji,7 Paul Julian,8 Gary Meyers,9 Gary T. Mitchum,10 Pearn P. Niiler,11 Joel Picaut,12,13 Richard W. Reynolds,7 Neville Smith,14 and Kensuke Takeuchi15

1Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, Washington
2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
3National Ocean Service, NOAA, Silver Spring, Maryland
4Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Plouzane, France
5Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado
6Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
7National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NOAA, Camp Springs, Maryland
8Suitland, Maryland
9Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Tasmania, Australia
10Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, Saint Petersburg
11Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California
12Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement on Coopération
13Now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
14Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
15Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(C7), 14,169-14,240 (1998).
Copyright ©1998 by the American Geophysical Union. Further electronic distribution is not allowed.


The authors would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Also, Todd Mitchell of the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, provided many valuable suggestions on improving the readability of the paper. Scientific oversight for development of the TOGA Observing System was provided by the International TOGA Scientific Steering Group, and implementation was coordinated by International TOGA Project Office (ITPO). We would like to acknowledge John Marsh, director of the ITPO, for his dedicated and enthusiastic service in support of the TOGA program and in particular for his unflagging efforts on behalf of the many individuals and institutions involved in implementing the TOGA Observing System. Financial and other national contributions to TOGA were coordinated through the International TOGA Board. Sponsors for the TOGA Observing System included, in the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Office of Global Programs and Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation; in France, L'Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM), the Programme National de Dynamique du Climat, the Ministère de la Recherche et de l'Enseignement Supérieur, and the Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation des Océans; in Japan, the Science and Technology Agency and the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; in Korea, the Ministry of Science and Technology; in Taiwan, the National Science Council; in Australia, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, the Royal Australian Navy, and the Bureau of Meteorology; and organizations too numerous to list in many other countries that participated in the 10-year TOGA program. This is PMEL contribution 1720.

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