March 18, 1996
FINAL CRUISE INSTRUCTIONS
NOAA Ship: DISCOVERER
Cruise No: DI96-03 (1DI96)
Area: Gulf of Alaska
Depart April 17, 1996 Honolulu, HI Arrive April 23, 1996 Kodiak, AK Depart April 24, 1996 Kodiak, AK Arrive May 6, 1996 Kodiak, AK Depart May 6, 1996 Kodiak, AK Arrive May 13, 1996 Seattle, WA
NOAA - Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)
NOAA - Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)
Cruise Description and Objectives:
The Fisheries Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (FOCI) program is a joint effort by scientists at PMEL and AFSC to understand the biological and physical processes which cause recruitment variability of commercially valuable fish and shellfish stocks in Alaskan waters. The FOCI program is presently studying the effects of the biotic and abiotic environment on the early life stages of walleye pollock spawned in the Gulf of Alaska. There are two aspects to the study: the acquisition and analysis of time-series data, and specific research topics to be covered on a cruise-by-cruise basis.
The objectives of this cruise are to: 1) continue acquisition of long-term biological and physical time series in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) conduct sampling of set grid stations for the purpose of determining distribution and abundance of walleye pollock eggs and general ichthyoplankton; 3) investigate the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) water mass, 4) Recover 4 VENTS current meter moorings enroute to Seattle.
1.1. Chief Scientist: William Rugen (AFSC) 526-4339
The Chief Scientist has the authority to revise or alter the technical portion of the instructions as work progresses provided that, after consultation with the Commanding Officer, it is ascertained that the proposed changes will not: (1) jeopardize the safety of personnel or the ship; (2) exceed the overall time allotted for the project; (3) result in undue additional expenses; (4) alter the general intent of these project instructions.
1.2. Participating Scientists
Boarding in Honolulu, April 16th. Departing in Kodiak, April 23rd
Dan Dougherty M/USA NOAA/PMEL
Boarding in Kodiak, April 23rd. Departing in Kodiak, May 6th.
William Rugen M/USA NOAA/AFSC Jay Clark M/USA NOAA/AFSC Debbie Blood F/USA NOAA/AFSC Sue Picquelle F/USA NOAA/AFSC Leslie Lawrence F/USA NOAA/PMEL Dave Kachel M/USA NOAA/PMEL
Boarding in Kodiak, May 6. Departing in Seattle, May 13.
Glen Cannon M/USA NOAA/PMEL/OERD
1.4 Ship Operations Contact:
LT John Herring
(206) 553 - 4548
1801 Fairview Ave. East
Seattle, WA 98102-3767
Scheduling of individual activities will depend upon weather conditions and progress of scientific work, therefore, firm advance scheduling of events will not be possible, and a continual dialogue between scientific and ship's personnel will be especially important. To insure fulfillment of all the scientific objectives, the ship is asked to steam at maximum cruising speed whenever time in transit and between stations is greater than one hour.
A standard oceanographic watch will be utilized which consists of a winch operator, a scientific staff of three and a Survey Tech on deck. Operations will be conducted 24 hours a day.
2.1. Summary of Activities
We will begin this cruise by occupying a series of CTD lines that will transect the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) (Table 1, Figure 1). 20/60 cm bongos and CTDs equipped with niskin bottles will be done at each station. Calvets will be used at some predetermined sites to collect microzooplankton samples. One or more Argos buoy will be deployed near Gore Point. The occupation of these lines will take approximately 5 days. The lines run perpendicular to the Alaskan Peninsula coast from near the opening of Prince William Sound west to the north end of Afognak Island.
Next we will occupy a bongo grid located in the Shelikof Strait and sea valley. Locations for this sampling will be taken from the Shelikof master grid (Table 2, Figure 2). We will do a 60 cm bongo at each site. We will deploy one or more satellite tracked drifter buoys in areas of high pollock abundance. It is possible, based on information received from the University of Alaska during the cruise, that the stations sampled will be changed if an eddy occurs in the region. This portion should last approximately 4 days. We will conclude the cruise with a series of bongo stations to the east of Kodiak Island.
FOCI equipment will be loaded onto the Discoverer in Kodiak.
The VENTS current meter recovery is addressed in section 5.3 Piggyback Projects.
2.2. CTD/Water Sample Operations
PMC's Sea-Bird CTD will be the primary system used. CTD data will be acquired on a PMEL computer using SEASOFT software. The capability to display CTD data using the SCS system and monitors will be available. Survey technicians and scientists will keep the "CTD Cast Information/Rosette Log" in addition to the wire usage log. The CTD should descend at a rate of 30 m/min for the first 200 m and 45 m/min below that. The ascent rate should be 50 m/min. The FOCI fluorometer should be mounted on the rosette for all casts where possible. However, the fluorometer can not exceed 500 m. Water samples will be collected with 10-l Niskin bottles. Depth and fluorescence will be recorded on the "CTD Cast Information/Rosette Log" for all water bottle samples.
2.2.1. CTD Calibration: Salinity comparisons will be conducted on every cast (or as specified by the Chief Scientist). No reversing thermometers will be required. The CTD systems will be equipped with dual thermistors. A survey technician will run the AutoSal analysis during the cruise and record the readings on an AutoSal log.
2.3. Biological Operations
Samples from the bongo tows will be processed as soon as possible in the laboratory by the scientists. The nets will be washed down and the contents of the cod end are fixed as rapidly as possible in formalin.
2.3.1. MARMAP bongo tows:
A 60-cm bongo net with 333 Êm mesh nets and a 40 kg lead weight for a depressor will be used in standard MARMAP tows. PMEL's SeaCat CTD will be attached to the wire above the 60-cm bongo frame. The depth of the unit will be monitored from DataPlot. On selected tows a 20-cm bongo frame with 150 Êm mesh will be attached to the wire 1 m above the 60-cm bongo frame. The nets will be deployed at a constant wire speed of 40 m/min to a maximum depth of 200 m or within 10 m of the bottom. The winch will be stopped and the nets allowed to stabilize for up to 30 sec. The nets are then retrieved at a wire speed of 20 m/min. The ship's speed is adjusted to maintain a wire angle of 45 degrees during the entire tow. When the nets reach the surface, they are brought aboard and the samples are washed into the codend. Flow meters in the nets record the amount of water filtered and the CTD records the depth history of the tow. Tows not meeting specifications may be repeated at the discretion of the scientific watch. The scientists are responsible for recording times and maximum depth obtained in the SeaCat log book.
2.3.2. Microzooplankton Samples:
Microzooplankton samples will be taken at selected sites using vertical tows with the CalVET sampler. To deploy the CalVET, first attach the bongo weight and seacat to the end of the wire. This is then lowered until the SeaCat is completely submersed. The CalVET is then attached to the wire by both the screw-down clamps on the frame and by lines running from the codends to a book clamp on the wire. The CalVET is then lowered at the fastest rate possible until near bottom or at a desired depth (60 m). Once stopped, the stop watch should be started and the CalVET retrieved at as high a rate as possible. Once out of the water, the net is hosed down, the codends removed, and the sample preserved as quickly as possible. Microzooplankton samples should be rinsed into sample jars with water that has been filtered with the chlorophyll apparatus.
2.3.3. Chlorophyll Samples:
Chlorophyll samples will be taken from the 10-l Niskin bottles. Sampling depths depend on the fluorescence/ChlAM profile. A typical strategy would be samples at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 or 60 m depending upon which is closest to the fluorescence/absorbance maximum. If the maximum is deeper, sampling should be moved deeper with less samples in the mixed layer. The approx. 250 ml chlorophyll samples will be filtered onto GF/F filters, placed in microcentrifuge tubes, labeled, wrapped in aluminum foil and placed in the freezer at -70oC.
The purpose of the Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) is to measure the ocean current velocity continuously over the upper 300 m of the water column, usually in 8 m depth increments. Current velocities relative to the earth at this spatial and temporal resolution cannot be measured by other methods: CTD sections, current meter moorings, or drifting buoys.
ADCP data is also used to estimate the abundance and distribution of biological scatterers over the same depth range and in the same depth increments.
ADCP Data Collection
ADCP measurement requires four instruments working in concert: the ADCP, the ship's gyrocompass, a GPS receiver, and a GPS Attitude Determination Unit (ADU). The ADCP is connected to a dedicated PC and controlled by RD Instruments' Data Acquisition System (DAS) software. Version 2.48 of DAS software will be used as the controlling software. The DAS software shall be configured to use the user-exit programs AGCAVE.COM and UE4.EXE.
The ADCP PC is interfaced to the ship's gyrocompass, to the primary scientific GPS receiver, and to the GPS Attitude Determination Unit. The navigation GPS shall be configured to send only NMEA-0183 messages $GPGGA and $GPVTG at the maximum fix update rate for the receiver (usually 1 or 2 second rate), and with the maximum number of digits of precision (optimally 4). The Ashtech 3DF Attitude Determination Unit shall be configured to send the $PASHR,ATT message at least once, preferably twice, per second, and the NMEA-0183 message $GPGGA once each second. The user-exit program UE4.EXE shall be configured to control acquisition and processing of GPS and ADU messages, and to synchronize the PC clock with the time reported by the primary GPS.
The ADCP PC logs data from the profiler to removable disk cartridge and optionally sends a complete data structure to SCS for logging on that system. This redundancy in data logging is desirable for post-cruise processing flexibility. The user-exit progam UE4.EXE should be configured to send an "RDI-style" ensemble to SCS.
Detailed, post-cruise processing of ADCP data is designed to take advantage of a higher quantity of navigation data than is retained by the ADCP acquisition software. Thus, the ship's SCS is relied on to log GPS navigation data at maximum available rates. The SCS system shall log output from the best two scientific GPS receivers at all times during a cruise. For the purpose of designating a primary and secondary GPS system, precedence shall be assigned according to the following list of GPS receivers suported by PMC:
1. Trimble Centurion with encryption key installed and enabled (PPS-GPS)
2. Trimble Centurion operating without encryption key (SPS-GPS)
3. Magnavox MX-4200 (SPS-GPS)
4. Magnavox MX-200 (SPS-GPS)
5. Ashtech 3DF ADU (SPS-GPS)
It is the responsibility of the ship to install and enable the appropriate encryption key for use of a PPS-GPS receiver.
The SCS file SENSOR.DAT should be configured to enable logging only of the NMEA-0183 format messages $GPGGA and $GPVTG from navigation sources; derived sensor messages are not desirable for post-cruise processing.
Similarly, only raw messages from the gyrocompass ($HEHDT) and GPS ADU ($PASHR,ATT) are desirable for logging.
SCS should log the primary GPS data at 1 second intervals, the secondary GPS data at 10 second intervals, gyro data at 10 second intervals, GPS ADU messages at 10 second intervals.
ADCP Underway Operations
The ADCP operates continuously during the entire cruise. Additional instructions for configuring the DAS software, and appropriate logsheets will be provided by the PMEL personnel aboard. At the start of a cruise, the system shall be configured and started according to the provided checklists "Before Leaving Port" and "Underway to Operations Area". The ADCP and its interface to the gyro and navigation must be checked daily by completing the "ADCP Daily Log" and also at the end of the cruise with the ship tied to the pier.
In case of problems please describe the problem, error message numbers, flashing lights, etc. on the log sheets.
ADCP Absolute Backscatter Calibration
A test to calibrate the absolute backscatter strength and to determine the background noise level of the ship-ADCP system may be performed once per cruise at the discretion of the Chief Scientist. Specific instructions in such event will be provided by PMEL personnel aboard, and cannot be anticipated in advance of the cruise.
Typically, such a test will be attempted in conditions when weather is relatively calm, and the water depth exceeds 250 m. This test may require that pumps, sonars, and other sources of acoustic and electronic noise be shut down. If conducted in the course of normal operations, the work will require about 1 hour.
2.5 Satelitte Tracked Drifter Buoys
Argos tracked drifter buoys may be deployed at the discretion of the chief scientist. The configuration of these deployments will be decided during the cruise based on the results of biological sampling.
2.6 Weather Balloon Deployment
Up to four rawinsonde (weather balloon) launches will be requested in the vicinity of Shelikof Strait. The timing of these launches will be dependent on the weather, and will be coordinated with overflights by the NOAA P-3. One or two sets of launches are anticipated during daylight hours. One day of notice will be provided for these operations.
3.0. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
3.1. The following systems and their associated support services are essential to the cruise. Sufficient consumables, back-up units, and on-site spares and technical support must be in place to assure that operational interruptions are minimal. All measurement instruments are expected to have current calibrations, and all pertinent calibration information shall be included in the data package.
3.1 Equipment and Capabilities to be Provided by the Ship
3.2 Equipment to be Provided by the Project
3.3 Scientific Computer System (SCS)
The ship's Scientific Computer System (SCS) shall operate throughout the cruise, acquiring and logging data from navigation, meteorological, oceanographic, and fisheries sensors.
The SCS data acquisition workstation will provide project scientists with the capability of monitoring sensor acquisition via text and graphic displays. A data processing workstation will be available to project scientists throughout the cruise to allow near real time processing of CTD data.
Sensor identification, and data acquistion and logging parameters are specified in the system file SENSOR.DAT. Specifics for configuring the SENSOR.DAT file will be communicated to the ship's SCS manager at the beginning of the cruise. The following specifications for parent sensor data logging rates can be anticipated, and should be used in the absence of futher instructions:
GPS1: $GPGGA - update and log at 1 sec interval
GPS1: $GPVTG - update and log at 1 sec interval
GPS2: $GPGGA - update and log at 10 sec interval
GPS2: $GPVTG - update and log at 10 sec interval
Ashtech 3DF $PASHR,ATT - update and log at 10 sec interval
Gyrocompass - update and log at 10 sec interval
Thermosalinograph: RAW or MSG - update and log at 10 sec interval
Compressed data files are not required by FOCI, primary cruise data will be original (*.SCS) files. At regular intervals, not to exceed every 5 days, the ship's SCS manager will archive data from disk files to 8-mm tape cartridge for delivery to the project representative at the end of the cruise. To ensure compatibility with the laboratory tape drive mechanisms, backup 8-mm tapes shall not be recorded with hardware compression options. In addition to primary SCS data files, the following files will be included on the 8-mm backup tape(s):
SENSOR.DAT file active during cruise
Seabird Thermosalinograph calibration file
Real-time data will also be logged to QIC tapes to provide additional data security in the event of disk failure; these tapes will be archived by the ship until project data tapes have been received and verified by the laboratories.
The ship's SCS manager will ensure data quality through the administration of standard SCS protocols for data monitoring. If requested by the chief scientist, standard SCS daily quality assurance summaries will be prepared for review.
Additional recording of processed data may be requested of the ship's SCS manager. During the cruise, the scientific party may require the assistance of the ship's SCS manager to determine if all sensors are functioning properly and to monitor some of the collected data in real time to make sampling strategy decisions.
4.0. DATA AND REPORTS
4.1. Data Disposition and Responsibilities:
The Chief Scientist is responsible for the disposition, feedback on data quality, and archiving of data and specimens collected on board the ship for the primary project. The Chief Scientist will be considered to be the representative of the AFSC/PMEL Lab Director for purpose of data disposition. A single copy of all data gathered by the vessel will be delivered to the Chief Scientist upon request for forwarding to the Lab Director, who in turn will be responsible for distribution of data to other investigators desiring copies.
4.2. Data requirements
4.2.1. Marine Observation Log: A Marine Operations Abstract (MOA) form will be maintained by the ship's officers during the cruise. The Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer or designee will negotiate the details regarding forms required by the project for each operation.
4.2.2. Station Plot: The position of each operation and station will be plotted on NOS nautical charts. Ship's officers will supply the Chief Scientist with the original chart or an overlay of the chart. If SeaPlot is available, a diskette of SeaPlot files should also be maintained for transfer to the Chief Scientist. (NOS charts and mylar overlays are no longer required if SeaPlot files are available).
4.2.3. Navigation: Observations and reliable fixes shall be plotted and identified by date/time group or equivalent. Fixes shall be evaluated for course and/or speed made good. Primary navigational control shall be provided by GPS satellite, radar range and bearing, and visual fixes. Loran-C fixes shall be recorded as both the rates and as latitude and longitude.
4.2.4. Synoptic Weather Reports: In accordance with OMO Instruction 3142 dated December 5, 1985 and Amendment 3142B dated August 4, 1986, a weather log of NOAA Form 72-1A will be maintained by ships personnel, and data will be transmitted via SEAS. The completed logs will be forwarded to NWS port meteorologists.
Complete meteorological observations will be logged on the NOAA Form 77-13d at hourly intervals for scientific data purposes.
4.3. Cruise Reports
The Chief Scientist and Commanding Officer will jointly prepare a cruise report for submission to the Director, PMC, as required by NOAA Directives Manual 17-17. The Commanding Officer's report will follow formats and reporting requirements prescribed in PMC Oporder 1.3.6.
4.4. Evaluation Report
One Ship Operations Evaluation Report is required for each leg of the primary project only, using the form provided for that purpose.
5.0. ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PROJECTS
5.1. Additional Investigations
Any other work done during the cruise period will be subordinate to the main project and performed so as not to interfere with that outlined in these instructions. The Chief Scientist will be responsible for determining the priority of additional work relative to the main project.
5.2. Ancillary Projects:
(a) SEAS Data Collecting and Transmission (PMC OPORDER 1.2.1.)
(b) Marine Mammal Reporting (PMC OPORDER RP-12-94)
(c) Nautical Charting (PMC OPORDER 1.2.6.)
(d) Bathymetric Trackline (PMC OPORDER 1.2.5.)
(e) Alaska Weather Reporting (PMC OPORDER 1.2.7.)
(f) Sea Turtle Observations (SP-PMC-2-94, Sea Turtle
Observation Program, 1994)
5.3. Piggyback Projects:
OERD / VENTS program will participate in the final leg of this cruise. Their operations consist of recovering 4 current meter moorings during the transit from Kodiak to Seattle. (These moorings were deployed by Discoverer on Chris Fox's 1995 cruise enroute from Seattle to San Francisco). The mooring locations are listed in Table 3.
Three palettes of equipment will be shipped to Honolulu. More detailed information will sent as it becomes available. The equipment to be loaded onto the Discoverer is listed below. No unusual ship's machinery will be required for this leg of the cruise.
Equipment Manifest for OERD mooring recovery
1 Plastic Pallet Tote for current meters 4'x4'x2.5 200# a. 2 Acoustic release deck sets 100# b. 1 Through Hull acoustic transducer 100#
Scientists Cannon and Pashinski will board the ship in Kodiak on May 6th via RHIB transfer
6.1. Radio Interference
Some scientific equipment is sensitive to radio frequency interference. If interference occurs, it may be necessary to adjust operations and communications schedules if efforts to electronically isolate the equipment are unsuccessful.
A precruise meeting between the Commanding Officer and the Chief Scientist will be held prior to the start of the cruise. Its purpose is to identify the day-to-day requirements of the project in order to best utilize shipboard personnel resources and to identify overtime requirements. A brief meeting of all scientific personnel, the Field Operations Officer, Chief Boatswain, survey department, and other relevant ship's personnel should be held before the vessel reaches the experiment area for the purposes of (1) introducing new scientific personnel to ship's procedures, proper channels, etc.; (2) discussing operating procedures for deploying various pieces of sampling equipment; and (3) coordinating scientific watch assignments.
7.1. A daily JFT schedule will be maintained between KVJ and the DISCOVERER Monday through Friday. Radio contact will be maintained when possible. A scientific progress report will be sent to AFSC via INMARSAT voice, Fax, or JFT at least once a week.
7.2. Since it is sometimes necessary for the scientific staff to communicate with other research vessels, commercial vessels, and shore based NOAA facilities, the Chief Scientist or designee may request the use of radio transceivers aboard the vessel.
7.3 Numbers to contact:
PMEL/CARD Fax: (206) 526-6485
7.4. The DISCOVERER is equipped with INMARSAT, a telephone/teletype satellite communication system. If the scientific staff uses this system, they will be obligated to pay for their calls, which are estimated at $6.37 per minute and Rapid fax and $4 per minute for Telex. The Chief Scientist, or designee will have access to, and assistance provided for transmitting and receiving communications through INMARSAT as needed during the cruise.
7.5 The DISCOVERER is equipped with a cellular telephone. If the Scientific Party uses this system, they will pay for incoming and outgoing calls. Cost is approximately $0.90 per minute, plus applicable long distance fees charged to the ship's number.
1. Station Positions for ACC ctd/bongo lines.
2. Station Positions for Shelikof Sea valley and offshore bongo grid.
3. VENTS Mooring Recovery Locations
4. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for hazardous materials
[PRESENTED TO SHIP PRIOR TO LOADING].
1. ACC CTD and bongo lines
2. Master grid for Shelikof sampling.