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Re: Calculating stream function from known velocity field.

Thanks, Ned, for those precise definitions. Ned is correct. 
I would usually use a streamfunction only for the vertically-
integrated flow, for example the Sverdrup streamfunction. One
also sees streamfunctions of the zonally-integrated flow in the 
(y,z) plane. However, those situations do come up with some 
regularity, and they certainly are relevant for model solutions 
(that conserve mass).

Streamlines (tangent to the flow) are useful for visualization 
even when the flow is divergent, I think. For example dynamic 
height contours are streamlines of the geostrophic flow (but 
they are not a streamfunction because of the variation of f).

For an example of "Montgomery streamlines" (geostrophic flow along an 
isopycnal): http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/~kessler/salinity/fig-ccc-color.gif
These show a divergent field, since u_g=(-1/f)d(Psi)/dy, v_g=(1/f)d(Psi)/dx,
and d(u_g)/dx+d(v_g)/dy=(-beta/f)v_g.ne.0. That means the distance
between adjacent streamlines does not indicate the transport (as it 
would for a streamfunction), but the streamlines are still everywhere 
parallel to the flow.

The script to find these streamlines (from Levitus) is:
! script to find the Montgomery (1937) streamlines from Levitus.
! geostrophic streamlines (relative to 1000db) on an isopycnal.
! "Montgomery Streamfunction" is DH_a + alpha_a*p, where _a indicates anomaly
! units: Phi=10*DH in dyn-m -> Phi in m2/s2 (geopotential)
!        P in Pa: 1db = 10^4 Pa = 10^4 kg/m/s2
!        alpha in m3/kg
!        So MSF units are m2/s2.
! arg1=sigma-t value of isopycnal surface

set dat ocean_atlas_annual

let/q rho=rho_un(salt,temp,0)
let/q sigmat=rho-1000
let/q alpha0=1/rho_un(35,0,0)
let/q alphaa=1/rho-alpha0
let/q p=sigmat[z=@loc:$1]*1.e4
let/q sigmaat1=sigmat[z=@weq:$1]

! alpha is really a constant on an isopycnal!
let/q alphac=1/(1000+$1)-alpha0
let/q alphacp=alphac*p

! find DH in dyn-cm
! factors are: 100 to get dyn-cm; 1.e4 for p in Pa; 10 for geopot -> DH
let/q dh = (100*1.e4/10)*(alphaa[z=0:1000@din]-(alphaa[z=@iin]-alphaa*zbox/2))
let/q dh2 = if temp[z=1000] then dh 		! blank where no T(1000)

! divide DH by 100 -> dyn-m. Then mult by 10 to get m2/s2 (geopotential)
let/q phiat1a=(10/100)*dh2*sigmaat1
let/q phiat1=phiat1a[z=0:1000@sum]

let/q msf=phiat1+alphacp
! Contours of MSF are the Montgomery streamlines (geostrophic flow
! on the isopycnal sigma-t=$1).


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