Cruise Report


Cruise Location Map ( Fig.1)................................................................................................. 3

NeMO 98 Scientific Party..................................................................................................... 4

1.0 CRUISE OVERVIEW........................................................................................................ 5

1.0.2 Background........................................................................................................................... 5

1.0.3 New Eruption Site................................................................................................................. 6

1.0.4 Mooring Searches.................................................................................................................. 7

1.0.5 Seafloor Experiments............................................................................................................ 7

1.0.6 Studies of ASHES and other Vents....................................................................................... 7

1.0.7 Other Operations................................................................................................................... 8

1.0.8 Outreach................................................................................................................................ 8

NeMO'98 ROPOS Tracks ( Fig. 2)........................................................................................ 10

SE Caldera SRZ, Vent Names and Locations ( Fig. 3).......................................................... 11

Instruments Placed Summer'98 ( Fig. 4)............................................................................... 12

ASHES Vent Field, Vent Names and Locations ( Fig. 5)...................................................... 13

DISCIPLINE SUMMARIES.............................................................................................. 14

2.0 VOLCANOLOGY............................................................................................................... 14

2.1 Principal Findings................................................................................................................. 14

2.2 Acoustic Extensometers........................................................................................................ 15

3.0 CHEMISTRY...................................................................................................................... 16

3.1 Vent Fluid Sampling............................................................................................................. 16

3.1.1 Description of Hot Fluid Sampler......................................................................................... 16

3.1.2 Samples Recovered............................................................................................................... 17

3.1.3 Preliminary Results............................................................................................................... 17

3.2 SUAVE Studies..................................................................................................................... 18

3.2.1 Description of Operations..................................................................................................... 18

3.2.2 SUAVE Summary for Project NeMO (Station List and Preliminary Results)..................... 19

3.3 OsmoSampler and OsmoAnalyzer Operations..................................................................... 20

3.4 Gas Sampling........................................................................................................................ 22

3.5 H2 and CH4 Oxidation........................................................................................................... 22

3.6 Determination of Sulfide, Nitrate and Salinity Concentrations

Without the Use of Reagents................................................................................................. 22

4.0 MICROBIOLOGY.............................................................................................................. 23

4.1 Non-Mat Microbial Ecology................................................................................................. 23

4.2 Microbiological Sampling for Molecular Microbial Ecology Analysis............................... 24

4.2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 24

4.2.2 Shipboard Processing and Storage of Samples..................................................................... 25

4.2.3 Laboratory Processing and Molecular Biological Analysis.................................................. 25

4.3 Biomineralization/Lava Mats................................................................................................ 26

5.0 MACROBIOLOGY............................................................................................................ 27

5.1 High Temperature Chimney Biology.................................................................................... 27

5.2 Stable Isotope Food Web Analyses....................................................................................... 27

5.3 Biology of Low Temperature Sites....................................................................................... 28

5.3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 28

5.3.2 Colonization.......................................................................................................................... 28

5.3.3 Regional Character................................................................................................................ 28

5.3.4 Local Variation...................................................................................................................... 29

5.3.5 Ridgeia piscesae.................................................................................................................... 29

5.3.6 A Final Comment.................................................................................................................. 29

5.3.7 MacroBiological Sample List from Low Temperature Sites................................................ 29

6.0 HYDROTHERMAL MINERALIZATION...................................................................... 30

7.0 NON-ROPOS OPERATIONS............................................................................................ 31

7.1 CTD Operations.................................................................................................................... 31

7.1.1 NeMO'98 CTD Casts............................................................................................................ 31

7.1.2 NeMO'98 CTD Cast Locations and Stations Table.............................................................. 32

7.2 Rock Sampling...................................................................................................................... 33

7.2.1 Operations............................................................................................................................. 33

7.2.2 Rock Core Sample List......................................................................................................... 33

7.3 SeaBeam 2100 Survey of Brown Bear Seamount................................................................. 35

8.0 NeMO '98 New Millennium Observatory WEB SITE.................................................... 35

9.0 NAVIGATION.................................................................................................................... 36

9.1 Navigation Overview............................................................................................................ 36

9.2 Final Calibrated Transponder Positions................................................................................ 37

9.3 Vents/Markers/Targets Location Table................................................................................ 38

9.4 NeMO Observatory Instruments in Place, September'98 Table........................................... 41

10.0 NeMO'98 OPERATIONS - ROPOS DIVES R460 - R480............................................. 42

10.1 ROPOS Dive Dates and Locations Table............................................................................. 42

10.2 NeMO'98 Markers/Experiments Deployed and Recovered

(also includes ALVIN 3245-3247 deployments).................................................................. 44

10.3 Sample Types (Total and per Dive)...................................................................................... 46

10.4 ROPOS Samples, Dives R460 - R480.................................................................................47

10.5 Dive Map Nomenclature....................................................................................................... 57

10.6 ROPOS Dive Logs, Dives R460 - R480 (Dive Log follows Dive Map)............................. 59

R460 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 58

R461 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 68

R462 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 84

R463 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 89

R464 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 94

R465 Dive Map......................................................................................................................105

R466 Dive Map ..................................................................................................................... 110

R467 Dive Map ..................................................................................................................... 116

R468 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 122

R469 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 126

R470 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 132

R471 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 134

R472 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 138

R473 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 142

R474 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 150

R475 Dive Log (no dive map)............................................................................................... 157

R476 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 158

R477 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 163

R478 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 166

R479 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 172

R480 Dive Map..................................................................................................................... 179



Bob Embley, Chief Scientist (PMEL)

Bill Chadwick (CIMRS)

Steve Scott (U. Toronto)

Susan Merle (CIMRS)

Julia Getsiv (Vanderbilt U.)

John Chadwick (U. Florida, Gainesville GS*)

Mike Stapp (PMEL)


Dave Butterfield (JISAO-U. Washington)

Gary Massoth (PMEL)

Kevin Roe (JISAO-U. Washington)

Betsy McLaughlin-West (Rutgers U.)

Stacey Maenner (PMEL)

Jim Gendron (PMEL)

Geoff Wheat (U. Alaska)

Elizabeth Guenther (Moss Landing GS*)

Leigh Evans (CIMRS)


Verena Tunnicliffe (U. Victoria)

Jean Marcus (U. Victoria GS*)

Maia Tsurumi (U. Victoria GS*)

Kim Juniper (U. Quebec)

Damien Grelon (U. Quebec GS*)

Christian Levesque (U. Quebec GS*)


Jon Kaye (U. Washington GS*)

Julie Huber (U. Washington GS*)

Craig Moyer (Western Washington U.)

Karen Pelletreau (Western Washington U.)


Gene Williamson


Keith Shepherd

Bob Holland

Keith Tamburri

Kim Wallace

Ian Murdock

Mike Dempsey

*GS = Graduate Student


1.0.1 General Overview

This report details the results of the operations that occurred during the NeMO98 cruise on the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown from August 25th to September 20th, 1998. The team of 33 chemists, biologists, geologists, and engineers used the scientific remotely operated vehicle ROPOS (Remotely Operated Platform for Ocean Sciences) (Shepherd and Juniper, 1997) to investigate in detail the aftermath of the diking event and its effect on hydrothermal chemistry and on the seafloor and subseafloor biological communities. This was a highly leveraged expedition, with substantial operational support coming from several portions of NOAA (WCNURC, Sea Grant, PMEL VENTS) and from the Canadian National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Twelve principal investigators and eight graduate students from the U.S. and Canada participated in the expedition. Support for the research of the investigators and graduate students came from a variety of sources, including the NOAA Sea Grant Program, the National Science Foundation, NSERC, the NOAA VENTS Program, and MBARI (the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute). More than 200 samples were collected, 40 experiments were deployed (most for a year deployment), and 15 experiments were recovered during the 252 hours (over 21 dives) of bottom time with ROPOS. The extraordinary amount of bottom time (about 100 hours more than an equivalent length submersible dive program) allowed the entire scientific party to participate in a careful exploration of the new eruption site and the other hydrothermal systems on the summit of Axial Volcano.

1.0.2 Background

A major focus of the cruise was the NeMO (New Millennium Observatory) project. The primary goal of NeMO is to investigate the effect of dike intrusions and eruptions on the chemistry and micro- and macrobiology of hydrothermal systems (Haymon et al., 1993; Holden et al., 1998; Tunnicliffe et al., 1997; Butterfield, 1997; Delaney et al., 1998). NeMO was conceived in 1996 as a multiyear effort to perform chemical, biologic, hydrographic (plume), and geologic time series studies of Axial Volcano on the central Juan de Fuca Ridge (Fig. 1) (Johnson and Embley, 1990). Axial was chosen for this study because: (1) its shallow depth and large mass of Axial Volcano implies a long-term frequency and volume of volcanic activity significantly higher than the adjacent mid-ocean ridge [Baker, 1992 #60], and (2) hydroacoustic monitoring using SOSUS (Dziak and Fox, 1997) and an ocean floor pressure gauge (Fox, 1990; Dziak and Fox, 1997) showed that the summit of Axial is the most seismically active site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Embley et al., 1990), and (3) intensive seafloor surveys by camera and submersible in the 1980s showed extensive evidence for recent volcanism and hydrothermal activity at its summit.

The approach of NeMO is to combine baseline in situ sampling and high resolution mapping with continuous monitoring of the hydrothermal systems over several years with the expectation of several magmatic perturbations occurring within that interval. Extensive seafloor investigations using deep-towed cameras and submersibles took place in the 1980s (CASM, 1985; Johnson and Embley, 1990) and renewed investigations in 1995-97 provided an excellent baseline for the NeMO program. The continuous monitoring aspect of NeMO reached a critical level by 1997, when the instrument suite was expanded to three complementary components: (1) Volcano System monitors (VSMs) to measure vertical crustal motion and seismic tremor, (2) an array of current meter/temperature recorder moorings along the shallowest portion of the south rift zone within the caldera, and (3) deployment of an array of acoustic extensometers (from the R/V Sonne in 1996) capable of recording horizontal strain over a 400-500 meter distance across the north rift zone (Fig. 2). Long-baseline-navigated towed camera surveys and CTD casts and tows from the Sonne (P. Herzig, Chief Scientist) in 1996 and the Brown in 1997 (G. Massoth, Chief Scientist) and several dives with ROPOS in the caldera in 1997 (V. Tunnicliffe, Chief Scientist) provided important baseline data and set the stage for the extensive surveys and sampling planned for NeMO-98.

On January 28, 1998, an intense earthquake swarm lasting 11 days began on the summit of Axial. Migration of the seismicity 50 km southward during the first few days revealed the similarity of the event to Icelandic and Hawaiian diking/eruptive events (Dziak and Fox, 1998). After the first two days, virtually all of the events located either on the southwestern part of the summit or at the extreme end of the southern rift zone. In mid-February, a rapid response cruise on the Wecoma by NSF and NOAA investigators (J. Cowen, Chief Scientist) found enormous increases in the hydrothermal discharge from the summit of Axial (Baker et al., 1998). In July, 1998, Alvin made four dives into the caldera during a combined NSF and NOAA effort (J. Cowen, Chief Scientist), confirming an area of new hydrothermal activity within a zone of young lavas in the SE part of the caldera. The Brown completed an extensive plume survey in early August and recovered one VSM (Volcano System Monitor) and two of the three temperature sensor moorings deployed in 1997. Temperature data from two of the water column moorings (Fig. 3) recovered by the Brown showed a large heat pulse coincident with the onset of the earthquake swarm and a pressure gauge on the VSM recovered from the center of the caldera showed a 3 meter subsidence of the seafloor (Fox, 1998). The high probability of a summit eruption indicated from these data set the stage for NeMO-98.

1.0.3 New Eruption Site

Much of the bottom time was used to investigate the eruptive site of a new lava flow in the southeast portion of the caldera which erupted along a fissure system at least 3 km long (Figs. 2 and 3). We had an excellent, state-of-the-art set of tools on ROPOS to accomplish this. These included: (1) an in situ chemical scanner (SUAVE) which measured Fe, H2S, Mn, light scattering, and temperature, (2) a suction device primarily used for taking up to 8 samples of unconsolidated material such as microbial mats, meiofauna, and vent animals, (3) a new vent fluid sampler capable of taking as many as 18 water and particle samples for chemical and microbiological analyses, (4) a pencil beam scanning sonar for detailed mapping, and (5) a 3 chip RGB pan/tilt/zoom video system.

A large percentage of the surface of the lava flow was coated with a brown to tan microbial mat which masked the glassy surface of the new flow and caused some initial uncertainty about the age of the lava. The very recent age of this lava was eventually verified by the partial burial of a seafloor instrument (see below) and a line from a navigation transponder mooring that had been deployed in the summer of 1997. The eruption was in the form of a drained-out sheet flow, in contrast to the (primarily) pillow lava erupted during previously monitored NE Pacific eruptions. Sheet flow morphology is thought to be caused by a higher effusion rate, which is consistent with the enhanced magma supply at Axial. High resolution surveys with the downward-scanning sonar revealed that the source of the eruption was an en echelon series of north-south collapse depressions characterized by lava spires and floored by sheet flow. Camera tows and submersible dives in the 1980s and 1990s found numerous vent communities over several kilometers on the southeast part of the caldera where the south rift zone begins near the eastern wall of the caldera. The ROPOS dives showed dramatic changes in the hydrothermal systems on the southeast part of the caldera, most notably the partial burial of the pre-existing vent communities. The eastern part of the lava flow had numerous sites of diffuse venting with extensive white bacterial mats colonized by small polychaete worms and snails (Fig. 3). These sites were devoid of tubeworms except near the eastern edge, where colonization had begun to occur, probably from surviving communities east of the lava flow contact. At one location, dead tubeworms and clams were found partially buried by the lava flow. Farther south, older vent communities still survived just beyond the limit of the new eruption. In one place an older lava drainout area had been penetrated by the new lava. Here, old tube worm communities barely survived on top of lava spires or were dying or dead after the spires had been toppled, possibly by the impinging lava flow and associated seismic activity.

Accompanying the eruption was an intense microbial bloom that was still ongoing in August/September, seven months following the event. A dramatic manifestation of the bloom was the production of large

amounts of white floc, which filled shallow cavities in the lava flow and flowed out in large amounts when the seafloor was disturbed.

1.0.4 Mooring Searches

ROPOS recovered five "prototype extensometer" (PE) instruments (Chadwick et al., 1995), via an elevator mooring. The PE instruments had been recording acoustic range data since they were deployed across Axial's north rift zone in June 1996, at a site about 4 km north of Axial caldera (Figs. 2 and 4). These data (which are still being analyzed) will show any horizontal strain along the north rift zone caused by the dike injection to the south. During the last ROPOS dive of the NeMO98 cruise four PE instruments (the fifth instrument had not worked) were redeployed near the same location across Axial's north rift zone for another year of continuous strain monitoring. Arrays of these instruments are planned for both north and south rift zones over the next several years.

Another role for ROPOS was a search for two seafloor instruments deployed in 1997 that could not be recovered during a previous attempt by the Brown in early August. A current meter/temperature monitor mooring had not responded to acoustic commands and one of the VSMs ("Rumbleometers") confirmed a release from the deployment weight but subsequent ranging indicated that it remained on the seafloor. ROPOS located this VSM by acoustic ranging (Dive R461) and a careful survey of it revealed that it was apparently overcome by flowing lava which had prevented the package from floating free of its deployment weight (Fig. 3). Subsequent attempts to pry it loose with the ROPOS manipulator (Dive R461) and pull it free with a line attached to the cage (Dives R474 and R477) were unsuccessful. An extensive search for the missing water column mooring on R460 and R461 failed to locate it. A bottom search with ROPOS at the deployment location of the mooring base (R477) revealed that new lava covered the site, so it seems likely that the mooring base was overrun by the lava flow, possibly resulting in the release of the mooring.

1.0.5 Seafloor Experiments

ROPOS deployed short-term and long-term experiments (Fig. 4). Several types of experiments were deployed for a year duration at the eruption site. These include: (1) two osmotic fluid samplers, (2) a time-lapse camera, (3) five temperature probes, and (4) several microbial mat collectors. The camera, one of the osmotic samplers, a temperature probe, and several microbial collectors were placed at the Marker 33 site, at which the highest flow rate was observed and the highest temperatures recorded. A short-term osmotic sampler was deployed and recovered from the same site as the long-term experiments. These experiments complement additional NOAA instrumentation emplaced before and after the ROPOS cruise. A replacement VSM was deployed at the eruption site in early August from the Brown. Following the ROPOS cruise, nine water-column moorings were deployed in and around the caldera from the Brown. These moorings include temperature sensors, optical sensors, and current meters to monitor the hydrothermal plume discharge for the next year. Finally, data from a year-long array of ocean bottom seismometers (beginning in July, 1998) at the summit of Axial by Scripps scientists in July 1998 (R. Sohn, S. Webb, and W. Crawford) should provide very valuable correlations between subsurface activity and effects on the hydrothermal system as recorded on the mooring and the in situ experiments.

1.0.6 Studies of ASHES and other Vents

The ASHES high temperature vent field in the SW portion of the caldera (Butterfield et al., 1990)(Figs. 2 and 5) was also extensively surveyed and sampled by ROPOS. It is not yet clear whether the 1998 diking event induced significant changes at ASHES vent field, but detailed analyses of the chemical samples will reveal any major changes induced since the last sampling effort in 1995. Several temperature probes deployed at both diffuse flow and high-temperature sites were left and will be recovered in the summer of 1999. A short-term osmotic water sampler was deployed and later recovered from a high-temperature site and several microbial mat collectors were left in place until 1999.

ASHES was also the focus of detailed studies of the macrofaunal communities. Intensive studies of the ecology of the tubeworm and polychaete communities at this site used a combination of video observations, chemical scanning, and sampling to better understand the relationships between chemistry, temperature, and biology. ASHES has been the focus of more than a decade of studies of the macrofaunal communities and continues to be an important study site for hydrothermal ecology.

Other long-term venting sites in and near the caldera visited and sampled by ROPOS included the CASM site (CASM, 1995) located at the northernmost end of the caldera near the intersection of the caldera wall and a small diffuse vent about 5 km north of the caldera along the north rift zone. The chemical and biological samples taken during these dives will establish a firm baseline for future magmatic perturbations occurring on the north rift zone.

1.0.7 Other Operations

Between dive operations included rock coring and CTD operations. These operations provided valuable additional data about Axial Volcano and used the valuable shiptime with maximum efficiency. The rock coring program concentrated on the South Rift Zone. Very few previous basalt samples had been collected from this site, and extensive analyses of these samples will help put the chemistry of the 1998 eruption into better regional context. The CTD program represented a continuation of the post-eruption plume time series begun in February.

1.0.8 Outreach

A web site ( was updated (A. Bobbitt) on a daily basis with transmissions of still images, an occasional video clip, and descriptions of the latest results. A secondary school science educator (G. Williamson) provided material to a complementary shore-based educator (Mike Goodrich), who then gave daily public lectures on the seagoing activity at the Hatfield Marine Science Center Public Wing and publicized the web site to the educational community. This program will continue in 1999 with Sea Grant funding (V. Osis and W. Handshumaker).


Baker, E. T., J. Cowen, S. Walker, and D. Tennant, The 1998 volcanic eruption at Axial Volcano: Hydrothermal plume monitoring from

moored instruments and shipborne response cruises, Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Un. (Fall Mtg. Suppl.), 79, F922, 1998.

Butterfield, D. A., G. J. Massoth, R. E. McDuff, J. E. Lupton, and M. D. Lilley, The chemistry of phase-separated hydrothermal fluids from ASHES Vent Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 12,895-12,921, 1990.

Butterfield, D., I.R. Jonasson, G.J. Massoth, R.A. Feely, K.K. Roe, R.W. Embley, J.F. Holden, R.E. McDuff, M.D. Lilley, and J.R. Delaney,

Seafloor eruptions and evolution of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lon. A, 355, 369-386, 1997.

CASM (Canadian American Seamount Expedition), Hydrothermal vents on an axial seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Nature, 313, 212-214, 1985

Chadwick, W. W., Jr., H. B. Milburn, and R. W. Embley, Acoustic extensometer: Measuring mid-ocean spreading, Sea Technol., 36, 33-38, 1995.

Delaney, J.R., D.S. Kelley, M.D. Lilley, D.A. Butterfield, J.A. Baross, W.S.D. Wilcock, R.W. Embley, and M. Summit, The quantum event of crustal accretion: Impacts of diking at Mid-Ocean Ridges, Science, 281, 222-230, 1998.

Dziak, R. P., and Fox, G. G., Long-term seismicity and ground deformation at Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge,

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 78, F641, 1997.

Dziak, R. P., and C. G. Fox, Hydroacoustic detection of submarine volcanic activity at Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, January 1998, Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Un. (Fall Mtg. Suppl.),79, F922, 1998.

Embley, R.W., and J. W. W. Chadwick, Volcanic and hydrothermal processes on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 4741-4760, 1994.

Fox, C. G., Evidence of active ground deformation on the Mid-ocean Ridge: Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 12813-12823, 1990.

Fox, C. G., In situ deformation measurements from the summit of Axial Volcano during the 1998 volcanic episode, Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Un. (Fall Mtg. Suppl.),79, F921, 1998.

Haymon, R.M., D.J. Fornari, K.L. Von Damm, M.D. Lilley, M.R. Perfit, J.M. Edmond, W.C. Shanks III, R.A. Lutz, J.M. Grebmeier, S. Carbotte, D. Wright, E. McLaughlin, M. Smith, N. Beedle, and E. Olson, Volcanic eruption of the mid-ocean ridge along the East Pacific Rise crest at 945-52'N: Direct submersible observations of seafloor phenomena associated with an eruption eventin April, 1991, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 119, 85-101, 1993.

Holden, J.F., M. Summit, and J.A. Baross, Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms in 3-30░ C hydrothermal fluids following a

deep-sea volcanic eruption, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 25, 33-41, 1998.

Johnson, H.P., and R.W. Embley, Axial Seamount - An active ridge-axis volcano on the central Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 12,689-12,696, 1990.

Shepherd, K., and S. K. Juniper, ROPOS, creating a scientific tool from an industrial ROV, Mar. Tech. Soc. J., 31, 48-54, 1997.

Tunnicliffe, V., R.W. Embley, J.F. Holden, D.A. Butterfield, G.J. Massoth, and S.K. Juniper, Biological Colonization of New Hydrothermal Vents Following an Eruption on Juan de Fuca Ridge, Deep-Sea Res., 1997.



2.1 Principal Findings (Bill Chadwick, Bob Embley)

One of the principle findings of the NeMO98 expedition is that the January 1998 earthquake swarm resulted in the eruption of new lavas along the upper south rift zone of Axial volcano. We know that new lava was erupted from the rift zone in at least two locations, 1) the upper most south rift zone between 4555.3' and 4557.2' (129 59.0'), on the SE edge of the caldera where many 1998 ROPOS dives took place, and 2) at a location where a prominent SeaBeam anomaly was found at 4552.0'/130 00.0', about 4 miles south of the caldera where one ROPOS dive was made. It should be emphasized that while we mapped the eastern and western lava contacts in both areas, we never defined the northern or southern limits of the new lava flows in either of these areas. Therefore, the full extent of the 1998 eruption is not yet known, and it is entirely possible that new lava was erupted continuously between the northern and southern study areas. For example, a second, smaller SeaBeam anomaly was found between 4554.5' to 4555.0'. This area was not visited by ROPOS during this cruise, but observations from Alvin dive 3247 in July 1998 suggest that new lava in the northern study area extends at least as far south as 4554.8'.

In the northern study area, it took a while for us to be convinced that new lava had indeed erupted, because in many areas it is covered by a tan/orange deposit of bacterial mat and does not look as fresh and pristine as we have observed at other recent eruption sites. However, by the end of the NeMO98 cruise the cumulative evidence for recent eruption was unequivocal. This evidence includes, 1) the mapping of new/old lava contacts and collapse features in the interior of the new flow in a geologically meaningful pattern from both bottom traverses and Imagenex sonar mapping, 2) a transponder mooring line that was deployed in 1996-97 found to be overrun by new lava along one of the new/old lava contacts, 3) the consistent absence of macrofauna on the new lavas except in new hydrothermal vent areas (contrasted with abundant sponges and other sessile animals on most of the surrounding older lavas), 4) the complete absence of "missing" tubeworm communities that had been photographed by camera tows in 1996 and visited by ROPOS in 1997 and were apparently buried by new lava, 5) the consistent distribution of new hydrothermal vent sites near the center of the new lava flow, and 6) the consistent (and virtually exclusive) association of the tan/orange bacterial mat coatings within the new lavas.

The new lava flow in the northern study area is narrow (300-600 m) and long (at least 3.5 km, but probably more than 4.5 km), and appears to be up to ~5 m thick. It was apparently erupted from a fissure on the rift zone, probably along the entire length of the flow. The lava flow is primarily a lobate sheet flow with extensive areas of roof collapse along its center, where it was thickest before drainout. In the floor of collapse areas are ropy, lineated, and jumbled sheet flows, and many areas with lava pillars up to 4 m in height. Near the margins where the flow is thin it has either lobate morphology or pillows. In places, the new lavas invade and fill in collapse areas in older lavas. The distribution of the tan/orange bacterial mat is variable, but generally it is thinnest near the flow margins and thickest near the center of the flow. The mat distribution is probably related to the way in which heat was dissipated from the new sheet flow as it cooled. The lava flow was hard on instrumentation that had been deployed in the area last summer - it surrounded and partially buried a NOAA/PMEL rumbleometer instrument and apparently buried or caused the premature release of a NOAA/PMEL current meter mooring.

High-resolution bathymetric maps made from data collected during surveys with an Imagenex scanning-sonar over the area show the distribution of collapsed and uncollapsed areas on the new flow, the topographic barriers in surrounding older terrain that limited its lateral extent, and the structural context of vent sites and sample locations. The Imagenex maps show about an order of magnitude higher resolution than hull-mounted multibeam bathymetry and reveal features on the seafloor that would be otherwise impossible to visualize. They will be extraordinarily useful for characterizing the eruption and the distribution of lava types, as well as for assessing the structural interaction between the south rift zone and Axial's eastern caldera wall. Imagenex surveys were also made on the north rift zone of Axial (where the extensometer instruments were recovered) and at ASHES vent field.

Our one ROPOS dive in the southern study area (dive 465) showed that the boundaries of the new lava flow there agreed almost exactly with the edge of the SeaBeam anomaly, which is about 1 mile E-W and 0.5 mile N-S, and is at least 27 m thick. The new flow was clearly erupted along the rift zone and flowed downslope to the east where it increased in thickness. This southern lava flow is primarily formed of pillow lavas, but also has lobate and jumbled sheet morphologies and localized areas of collapse and channelized flow. No active venting was observed on this lava flow, although there was extensive evidence that it had occurred previously.

The volume of lava erupted at Axial in 1998 is definitely larger than that erupted at either the 1993 CoAxial or 1996 Gorda eruptions, judging from the areas we have already mapped. However, we cannot put an upper bound on the eruptive volume until the area between 4552' and 4555' is mapped and the full extent of new lavas is determined.

2.2 Acoustic Extensometers (Bill Chadwick, Bob Embley, Mike Stapp)

The acoustic extensometer instruments were developed by NOAA/PMEL's engineering division with funding from NOAA/NURP and the VENTS Program. They are designed to measure and quantify seafloor spreading events. They do this by acoustically measuring the distance between pairs of instruments very precisely (~1 cm) over a short baseline (100-200 m between instruments). The instruments are deployed in a linear array to span larger distances (up to 1 km). They have enough power and memory to make daily measurements for about a year and a half.

On June 20, 1996 we deployed 5 extensometer instruments on the north rift zone of Axial at about 4601.2'N latitude from the SONNE. We had intended to deploy them with ROPOS that year, but due to the unavailability of the ROPOS winch at the last minute, we were forced to simply drop them from the surface and hope for the best (that they would land in such a way that they would have the required acoustic line-of-sight between them). We had also hoped to recover them in July 1997 from the TULLY, but this was the first shake-down cruise for the new ROPOS and there was not enough dive time available. However, this means they were still deployed when the earthquake swarm occurred on Axial in January 1998, giving us the opportunity to see if the north rift zone was involved in the 1998 eruption.

The five extensometer instruments were recovered by ROPOS and the elevator mooring (equipped with 5 large black plastic tubes) on September 5, 1998, on ROPOS dive 467. By luck, ROPOS landed right on top of instrument #2, after a short test above the bottom with the digital camera. All five instruments were in the elevator with 3.5 hours (surprisingly fast). The instruments had all landed within 9 to 39 m of their drop positions. An Imagenex survey was made of the area where the instruments were located to aid in finding the best sites for their re-deployment and to study the structure of the north rift zone.

Four of the five extensometers recorded data. Instrument #4 would not respond after recovery, and its data could not be retrieved. Of the 4 remaining, one ended up in a hole (#1) and could not see the others for ranging (this is why ROV deployment is so important!). The remaining 3 ranged to each other for about 20 months (until ~March 2, 1998), and luckily spanned the axis of the north rift zone. Of the two range legs between the 3 instruments, one range leg (#5<->#3) spanned the north rift zone and was 300 m in length (the dead instrument was in the middle there) and the other range leg (#3<->#2) was 100 m in length and east of the rift axis.

The good news is that most of the instruments worked. We obtained a good Imagenex sonar survey of the site, and an excellent ROV deployment of the instruments. They will provide an exceptional monitoring baseline for the next year. We deployed the 4 working instruments back on the north rift in about the same location. Future plans call for extensometer arrays on both the north and south rift zones with new instruments that can remain on the bottom for 5 years with annual data retrieval by acoustic modem.


3.1 Vent Fluid Sampling (Dave Butterfield)

One of the goals of the NeMO 98 Cruise was to understand the connections between microbiology, geology, and chemistry. Specifically, we wanted to address whether fluid chemistry is a controlling factor in the abundance and type of microbes present in hydrothermal vents. This fits in nicely with the studies of vent fauna and how they relate to fluid chemistry. This part of the project requires collecting coordinated samples for fluid chemistry and microbiology, and for that purpose, we constructed the Hot Fluid Sampler (HFS).

3.1.1 Description of the Hot Fluid Sampler

HFS was designed to collect fluid and particle samples from vents with a wide range of temperature and flow rate. The system consists of a titanium intake nozzle with 1mm slits to exclude large particles and a platinum resistance thermometer in a titanium sheath with the sensing tip located about 1 cm above the inlet slits. Hydrothermal fluids are pulled through the intake nozzle, past the temperature sensor, through a ball joint, into a 0.5 inch diameter PEEK plastic tube (~1.5 m long). This flexible tube connects to a 0.5 inch titanium tube (~1.3 m long), which in turn connects to 0.5 inch teflon tubing. A second temperature sensor is located at the junction of the titanium and teflon tubing, in order to assure that the temperature of the fluids has cooled to below 100C prior to being pulled into the various samplers or passing through the flushing pump. The flushing pump pulls the sample from the intake nozzle past the samplers, and operates at adjustable rates from 1 to 5 liters per minute. The sample pathway is made entirely of titanium, PEEK, and teflon. There are nine teflon cross fittings along the fluid path, allowing a maximum of 18 individual samples to be taken per deployment. By maintaining a constant and smooth inner diameter through the fluid pathway, the system promotes easy flushing of any entrained particles and provides minimal dead spots for particles to accumulate. To protect the flushing pump, we are limited to relatively "clean" samples, i.e. we can't use the fluid sampler as a suction sampler.

A separate sample pump (100 to 250 ml/min) pulls the fluid into the sampler selected by a 25-port valve. The sample pump pulls the backfill water out of the samplers to draw the fluid in, and does not contact the sample fluid, except in the case of the filter samples for particle collection, when filtered water is pulled through the sample pump. In addition to the dive sample number assigned to every ROPOS sample, we assign a water sample number which is the dive number followed by the type of sample (P for piston, B for bag, F for filter) and the valve position number. Pistons are numbered 8-13, with 8 and 9 used for gas sampling. Bag samples are numbered 2-7 and 23 and 24. Filters occupy positions 16-18.

The sampler uses 4 wires: ground, +26-35V DC, and RS232 transmit and receive. The software used to control the sampler runs on a PC under a DOS window. When data logging is on, we record (once per second) temperature, valve position, pump status (on/off), and volume pumped. By tracking the intake temperature of the sample throughout sampling, we get an average temperature for the water sampled, so we can calculate element/heat ratios.

Part of the philosophy of this sampler was to collect a large number of fluid and particle samples on a single dive dedicated primarily to fluid sampling, alternating with dives serving other purposes. Because the sampler is so large, few other operations are possible when the sampler is in use. The sampler is best utilized when there are a number of known targets to sample, or when replicate sampling of a few sites is desirable.

HFS takes 3 types of samples. There are 6 PVC piston samplers, 4 with teflon check valves for general water chemistry, and 2 with steel check valves with o-ring face seals for gas sampling. The piston samplers can hold up to 800 ml of sample when full. For gas sampling, we take only 150-200 ml so as not to exceed the capacity of the gas extraction line. There are 8 bag samplers, each with a teflon check valve. We have the option of placing filters in front of the bag samplers to remove particles. Our standard configuration took six filtered samples, with the filters going to Feely's group at PMEL for XRF and SEM analysis. The bags themselves are either Tedlar or laminated, high-density polyethylene-lined, and both types are reasonably impermeable to gases. Finally, we use a variety of filters with no fluid collection to trap particles. On this trip we used 3 micron GFF followed by 0.2 micron Sterivex cartridge filters for microbiological work (DNA analysis).

3.1.2 Samples recovered

The fluid sampler was deployed on 4 dives: 468 (shortened by mechanical problem with the 7-function arm), 469, 473, and 479. During these dives, we collected 42 fluid samples. We sampled focused, hot fluids from Virgin Mound, Crack, Mushroom, Inferno, and Hell vents, and diffuse vent fluids distributed throughout the ASHES vent field. We took one sample (20C) at Tombstone vent located about 500 meters south of the ASHES field. On dive 473, we sampled a wide variety of fluids associated with the new lava flow in the SE corner of the caldera. These samples included the "milky" fluids venting along a line in the northern part (Milky, Easy, Magnesia vents), floc-producing vents (Snowblower near The Pit), clear fluids venting through holes in the roof of drain-back areas (Roof vent), hotter clear-venting fluids (marker 33), and a smoky vent (Cloud). We sampled two of the 3 sites sampled during the July Alvin dives (marker 33 and marker 108). We also found and sampled a hot vent (275C) near the eastern contact of the new flow. Between the HFS samples, additional water samples collected with the suction sampler and ROV-mounted Niskins, and chemical data from SUAVE scans, we have excellent spatial distribution for vent fluid chemistry. Our assessment of what is actually venting from the recent eruption area at Axial is more comprehensive than the 1993 sampling after the CoAxial eruption.

3.1.3 Preliminary results

Our shipboard analyses included hydrogen sulfide, silica, pH, alkalinity, ammonia, and refractive index for salinity. We found that Virgin Mound still has a very low salinity, and that the salinity at Hell and Inferno has decreased significantly since 1995. This is the first time we have found all the high-temperature fluids to be less than seawater salinity at ASHES. Maximum temperatures measured with the fluid sampler were 297 at Hell, 261 at Virgin, 256 at Inferno, and 179 at Mushroom. (There may be higher temperature fluids venting from other orifices that we did not measure. We did not measure what was the hottest orifice on Inferno, because there was a HOBO temperature probe left in it.)

Many of the samples we collected were very gas-rich. The HFS sample containers hold the gas quite well, so we recovered much more sample than we typically get with the major samplers, which are designed to leak. Castle vent was charged with CO2, with over 5 mM H2S, and low salinity. The present venting at Castle is limited to a small anhydrite chimney near the base of what appears to be a decaying sulfide structure. This gives the impression that the venting at Castle has been rekindled by the recent eruptive activity.

We see a wide range of H2S/heat or H2S/Si ratios in the collected vent fluids. This range is a potential indicator of both differences in the reaction zone temperature and sulfide-consuming reactions in the sub-seafloor. Further study of the vent fluid and particulate chemistry combined with the microbiological results should clarify what processes are involved, and how they relate to the eruptive activity.

Although we saw significant thermal and particle plumes over some distance south of the ASHES field, our one dive there did not turn up much venting. We saw only one large patch of venting with tube worms, anemones, crabs, and other biota, and took one sample there. The sample has a moderate H2S/heat ratio. Because of the length of the transect (over a kilometer) we could not do a thorough search. Overall, we obtained an excellent set of samples that should allow us to learn how the free-living microbes and the mats relate to the vent fluid chemistry.

3.2 SUAVE Studies (Gary Massoth)

3.2.1 Description of Operations

The Submersible System Used to Assess Vented Emissions (SUAVE) was conceived from the need for a better tool to probe the submarine hydrothermal environment. Chemical oceanographers within the NOAA Vents Program require information about the concentration, distribution, and inventory (flux) of key chemical species in seafloor effluents and hydrothermal plumes that has a much higher spatial resolution than that typically afforded by conventional "n-limited" discrete sampling procedures. In situ chemical analyzers or "scanners" of the type first described by Ken Johnson and associates (Johnson et al., 1986) are an ideal solution to this need. By matching high-resolution chemical data provided by scanner technology with continuously-sensed physical property information, unprecedented insights about processes occurring in the submarine hydrothermal environment are in the offering. Similarly, by coordinating in situ chemical measurements with observations of vent field macro- and micro-biology, the effects of chemistry on hydrothermal biota, and vice versa, can be rigorously evaluated (Sarrazin et al., submitted). Finally, chemical analyzer data collectable over the "operational-day" time scale, both on the seafloor and within hydrothermal plumes, provides both the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to discriminate ephemeral processes critical to understanding the evolution of seafloor hydrothermal systems. These attributes plus the species/concentration-range adaptability, multiple-platform compatibility, reduced opportunity for sample contamination, and "quicktime" feedback inherent to chemical analyzers provided extreme incentive to develop a SUAVE capability within the Vents Program.

SUAVE is an integrated instrument system consisting of an evolved chemical analyzer patterned after the original in situ chemical analyzer, the "scanner"(Johnson et al., 1986), and an array of physical property sensors (temperature, conductivity, pressure, light scattering and/or attenuation). Co-funded by the NOAA NURP and Vents Programs, design and fabrication were initiated in 1991, incorporating modifications suggested by Ken Johnson and Kenneth Coale of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory, based on their experience with the "scanner." Schematic block diagrams of SUAVE electronics and chemical components are shown in Figure 1. The SUAVE chemical analyzer is based on principals of flow analysis and colorimetric detection. For NeMO 98 SUAVE was configured to measure H2S (simultaneously by two methods: nitroprusside over the range ~50 to 2000 æmol/L and molybdenum blue over the range ~1 to 200 æmol/L), Mn(II) and Fe(II+III) dissolved in vent fluids. Sensors data was recorded for temperature (0 to 120øC), pressure (depth), conductivity (salinity), and light scattering. All data channels logged readings each 5 seconds during deployment.

During NeMO 98 SUAVE was deployed on ROPOS-II during 10 of the 21 dives conducted. SUAVE was engaged in thermochemical surveys of seafloor venting for over 67 hours during which 55 scans (extended measurements for over 5 minutes at a single point in space: 30 along the East Rift eruption mound, 22 at ASHES vent field, 2 at CASM and 1 at the 91 vent field on the North Rift Zone of Axial Volcano) were made. The SUAVE measurements will be used to determine the spatial variability in concentration of the various measured chemical species and their ratios to heat for comparison to historical data. The SUAVE data set will be extended both spatially and elementally by merging with vent fluid data collected by Butterfield. Evidence for selective regional exhalation of H2S, a product of magmatic degassing and dike cooling and also a primary microbial nutrient, will be sought to guide studies of temporal variability of hydrothermal effluents. Identification of signature' ratio values indicative of the recent lava intrusion/eruption at Axial Volcano will be characterized. SUAVE H2S data will be merged with micro- and macro-biological data collected by Juniper, Tunnicliffe, and Moyer to help define thermochemical niche values for various biological communities.


Johnson, K. S., C. L. Beehler, and C. M. Sakamoto-Arnold (1986). A submersible flow analysis system, Anal. Chim. Acta, 179:245-257.

Sarrazin, J., K. Juniper, G. Massoth, and Legendre (submitted). Physical and chemical factors controlling hydrothermal species distributions on two sulfide edifices of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific, Deep-Sea Res.

Tunnicliffe, V., R.W. Embley, J.F. Holden, D.A Butterfield, G.J. Massoth and S.K. Juniper (1997). Biological colonization of new hydrothermal vents following an eruption on Juan de Fuca Ridge, Deep-Sea Res. 44(9/10):1627-1644.

3.2.2 SUAVE Summary for Project NeMO (Station list and preliminary results)

Site Tmax Tave H2S Mn Fe H2S/Q Mn/Q Fe/Q

C C M M M nM/J nM/J nM/J

SE Caldera

ROPAX 97@ huge worm field 6.4 6.4 82 ? BDL 4.8 - -

R460-1 bacteria floc by Milky Vent 2.9 6 BDL (45) 3.7 - (37)

R460-2 MKR N2@ Milky Vent 8.0 8.0 175 40 90 7.9 1.8 1.1

R460-3 MKR N3@ hole in basalt 13 11.5 200 40 40 5.5 1.1 1.1

R460-5 MKR N1@ Pit Vent 13.7 13 180 50 15 3.3 0.9 0.3

R461-1 @ MKR 33 bacteria mat, crack 15 8 470 2 47 9.3 0.04 0.9

R461-2 @ MKR 33 over white mat 11 15 5 2 0.4 0.2 0.1

R461-3 @ MKR 33 over hole in above mat~4.5 ~10 BDL BDL ~1.2 - -

R461-6 @ MKR 33 crack with floc flow 37 26 1000 18 40 7.2 0.1 0.3

R461-7 @ MKR 33 mat @ Bag Creature 17 700 2 5 12.0 0.1 0.1

4R61-8 @ MKR 33 Bag Creature 2.8 75 BDL BDL 62 - -

R461-9 @ MKR 33 Baby Bag Creature 3.1 40 BDL BDL 16.5 - -

R461-10 @ MKR N6 Cloud Vent 27 750 5.5 62 7.6 0.1 0.6

R461-11 @ MKR N4 Cloud Vent 24 750 2 55 8.7 0.1 0.6

R461-12 @ MKR 108 8.1 6.0 230 45 25 10.0 2.0 1.1

R461-13 @ MKR 113 flow @ top of pillar 10 237 BDL 7 7.7 - 0.2

R461-14 @ MKR 113@ Vemco probe tip 10.5 307 BDL 8 8.0 - 0.2

R461-17 @ MKR 113@ bacteria trap 23.5 20 500 -BDL 9 13.0 - 0.2

R461-19 @ MKR 113base of tall tubes 5.7 45 -BDL 8 4.5 - 0.1

R461-21 @ Cirque Vent and hole in 6.5 6.5 87 3.0 57 6.2 0.2 3.5

basalt with Fe floc cover

R461-22 @ Castle Vent@ base of 90 60 1400 18 71 6.1 0.1 0.3

Hi-T vent

R461-23 @ Castle Ventprobe in 5.3 5.0 132 BDL BDL 13.0 - -

tubes @ base

R461-24 @ Castle Vent and MKR N5, 21 19 200 6 19 3.0 0.1 0.3

@ healthy tube worms

R478-1 @ MKR 33 17

R478-2 MKR 33 Near OSMO Sampler 42.2

and MTR

R478-4 20 m SW of MKR 33 13.0

at crack venting floc

R478-5 ~5 m NW of CLOUD VENT 18.7

R478-? Scan 5 at Nascent Vent 23.5

R-478-? Scan 6 at MKR N41 22.7

R478-? Scan 7 on old flow just N of N41 9.5

R478-? Scan 8 on old flow and 16.3 16.1

within big tube worms

ASHES Vent Field

ROPAX 97@ Hat Vent 30.5 90 21 15.5 0.8 0.2 0.1

ROPAX 97@ Phoenix 4.9 93 4 12.5 9.9 .4 1.3

ROPAX 97@ Phoenix 19.5 320 4.8

ROPAX 97@ Phoenix 37.2 150 1.1

ROPAX 97@ Crack Vent 61.6 725 13 55 3.1 0.1 0.2

ROPAX 97@ Wall 80 m W 19.5 4 11.5 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.001

R466-20 @ Inferno near palm worms 5.5 4.0 45 10 45 7.4 1.6 7.5

R466-23 @ Hell front edge pork chop 16 12 1690 70 90 2.8 1.8 2.3

R466-24 @ Hell back of pork chop 19 17 420 60 87 7.3 1.0 1.5

R466-25 @ Hell center of chop 19 17 420 45 85 7.3 0.8 1.5

R466-26 @ Hell tip of chop 19.5 18 650 75 90 10.4 1.2 1.4

R466-5 @ Hillock@ bacteria traps, tubes 15.9 120 7.5 5 3.4 0.1 0.1

R466-10 @ Hillock@ Phoenix I, base 20 16 290 22 68 5.3 0.4 1.3

R466-11 @ Hillock@ Phoenix I, higher 15 11 1170 38 75 34 2.2 2.6

R466-12 @ Hillock@ Phoenix I, higher 6 4 360 15 62 59 2.5 10

R466-13 @ Hillock@ Phoenix II 8 4.5 360 17 67 45 2.1 8

R466-14 @ Hillock@ Phoenix II 4.2 3.0 54 1 8 27 0.5 4.0

R466-15 @ Hillock@ Phoenix II 6.1 4.0 67 4 17 11 0.7 2.8

R466-16 @ Hillock@ Phoenix III 80 65 380 25 70 1.5 0.1 0.3

R466-17 @ Hillock@ Phoenix III 24 22 27 BDL 10 0.3 - 0.1

R466-18 @ Hillock@ Phoenix III 3 2.8 81 3 17 67 2.5 14

R466-6 @ ROPOS@ bacteria trap site 29 24 305 40 80 3.4 0.4 0.8

468 Scan #1 early@ Crack Vent 77 70 1260 45 5 4.6 0.16 0.02

468 Scan #1 late@ Crack Vent >125 105 2120 <0 9 5.1 - 0.02

R466-7 @ Hair-doo at top of worms 14 12.5 125 12.5 8 3.1 0.3 0.2

R466-8 @ Hair-doo where worm 14.8 13.5 180 15 10 4.1 0.3 0.2

roots were


R480-1 @ T&S Vent base diffuse flow 41.9 37 232 73 >91 1.7 0.5 >.7

R480-5 @ T&S Vent top in lush tube 20.3 16 177 40.5 86 3.3 0.8 1.6

worm community

91 Vent (N. Rift) 4.5 4 124 5 2 14 0.8 0.3

in most intense flow near worms, clams

Through R481:

10 SUAVE Dives

55 SUAVE Scans

67 h of bottom time

3.3 OsmoSampler and OsmoAnalyzer Operations (Geoff Wheat)

Changes in the chemical composition of hydrothermal effluent after a tectonic-volcanic event have been documented (e.g., Baker et al., 1987, 1998; Butterfield and Massoth, 1994; Von Damm et al, 1995; Massoth et al., 1995; Massoth et al., in press; Wheat et al., to be submitted) and a conceptual model has been developed that theorizes the chemical evolution of venting fluids (Butterfield et al., 1997). However, the timing of these changes is uncertain. To date observations of temporal variability in the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids has relied on repeated submersible operations and the collection of discrete samples. While this technique provides some temporal constraints, a continuous water sampler or analyzer allows one to collect more samples with limited need for costly submersible operations. Our goal for this cruise was to deploy two short-term (two weeks) and two long-term (one year) continuous sampling systems to provide temporal constraints for observing hourly to daily and weekly to monthly chemical cycles in the hydrothermal effluent. Data from these samplers and their comparison to samples collected using traditional discrete sampling techniques will allow us to determine the temporal scale of chemical change in the hydrothermal effluent as the hydrothermal system evolves and may provide constraints for understanding the physical and chemical conditions at depth and the path for fluid circulation.

Two sampling systems were deployed, OsmoSamplers and OsmoAnalyzers. OsmoSamplers are continuous water samplers that use the osmotic pressure that is created across a semi-permeable membrane by solutions of differing salinity (Theeuwes and Yum, 1976; Jannasch et al., submitted). This pressure drives water across the membrane at a speed that is dependent on the surface area of the membrane, type of membrane, salt gradient, and temperature. An excess of salt is maintained on one side of the membrane, thus only temperature affects the flow of water in the sampler. Pumps in an OsmoSampler are used to continuously draw sample through a small bore (0.8 mm id) tubing that is attached to a 40-cm-long T-handle. An additional pump was used to add acid to the sample stream in most of the OsmoSamplers. A 1.5-m-long section of tubing separates the sample intake from the pump to allow the pump to be placed in an area void of hydrothermal influence and thus minimizes temperature (pump rate) fluctuations. A temperature recorder with a resolution of 0.0018░C is attached to the T-handle to monitor the same water that is being collected by the OsmoSampler. Chemical data are obtained by retrieving the sampler, cutting the sample tubing into sections, extracting the seawater, and analyzing the seawater for chemical species of interest. Time-stamps for individual samples are determined assuming a uniform temperature at the pump that translates into a uniform rate of pumping.

OsmoAnalyzers, in contrast to OsmoSamplers, use osmotic pumps to deliver reagents into a sample stream for in situ analysis (Jannasch et al., 1994). These analyzers are very similar to the SAUVE, which is described above. OsmoAnalyzers were designed to measure concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese at 30-minute intervals for up to six months. These analyzers thus compliment data collected by the SUAVE, which can measure concentrations continuously but only for a maximum of about three days.

Two long-term acid-addition OsmoSamplers were deployed. One was deployed at Milky vent and the other at Marker 33. Each sampler was positioned away from visual flow to decrease the potential in temperature fluctuations at the pump. For example, the SAUVE measured a temperature of 3.0░C, relative to a bottom temperature of 2.7░C, at the sampler deployed at Marker 33. At both sites the sample input was positioned into the most vigorous flow. Temperature recorders were attached to these inputs and will provide a yearly record of temperature at 30-minute intervals. We expect that these OsmoSamplers will provide four 0.5-mL samples per week for the length of the deployment.

Two short-term deployments were conducted and both samplers were recovered. One sampler package was deployed at Marker 33. During the two-week deployment measured temperatures varied from about 10░ to 50░C. This vent was sampled using two OsmoSamplers and two OsmoAnalyzers. One OsmoSampler consisted of an acid addition pump and a Teflon sample tubing for shore-based chemical analyses of the major and minor ions in seawater and several trace metals. 240 0.5-mL samples were collected. The other OsmoSampler had a copper sample tubing. This sampler provided 48 2.5-mL samples for shore-based analyses of dissolved gases. The two OsmoAnalyzers were designed to measure concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese, respectively. On the basis of initial inspection of these analyzers, the iron analyzer work, but the manganese analyzer did not.

The other short-term sampler package was deployed at Hell vent in the ASHES vent field for two weeks. This high temperature black-smoker vent was leveled before the acid addition sampler was deployed. The sampler had a temperature probe attached to the pump and an additional high-temperature (>100░C) probe was placed in the venting hydrothermal fluid. Both probes recorded temperature every 30 seconds for a maximum of about 30 days, however, the high-temperature probe was not recovered. The probe attached to the sampler recorded temperatures of about 3.6░C for the first week, then recorded temperatures of about 10░C for the second week. A total of 301 0.5-mL, one 1.0 mL, and one 1.5 mL samples were collected. Because sulfides were deposited in and on the sample inlet, it is likely that only a portion of these samples are directly from the vent orifice. Altered seawater likely entered through a weak link about 30 cm from the input.


Baker, E. T., G. J. Massoth, and R. A. Feely. 1987. Cataclysmic hydrothermal venting on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Nature, 329, 149-151.

Baker, E. T., G. J. Massoth, R. A. Feely, G. A. Cannon, and R. E. Thomson. 1998. The rise and fall of the CoAxial hydrothermal site, 1993-1996. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9791-9806.

Butterfield, D.A., and G. J. Massoth. 1994. Geochemistry of north Cleft segment vent fluids: Temporal changes in chlorinity and their possible relation to recent volcanism. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 4951-4968.

Butterfield, D. A., I. R. Jonasson, G. J. Massoth, R. A. Feely, K. K. Roe, R. E. Embley, J. F. Holden, R. E. McDuff, M. D. Lilley, and J. R. Delaney. 1997. Seafloor eruptions and evolution of hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 355, 369-386.

Jannasch, H. W., K. S. Johnson and C. M. Sakamoto. 1994. Submersible, osmotically pumped analyzers for continuous determination of nitrate in situ. Anal. Chem. 66, 3352-3361.

Jannasch, H. W., C. G. Wheat, M. Kastner, and D. Stakes. 1998. Long-term in situ osmotically pumped water samplers. Deep Sea Res., submitted.

Massoth, G. J., E. T. Baker, R. A. Feely, D. A. Butterfield, R. E. Embley, J. E. Lupton, R. E. Thomson, and G. A. Cannon. 1995. Observations of manganese and iron at the CoAxial seafloor eruption site, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 151-154.

Massoth, G. J., E. T. Baker, R. A. Feely, J. E. Lupton, R. W. Collier, J. F. Gendron, K. K. Roe, S. M. Maenner, and J. A. Resing. 1998. Manganese and iron in hydrothermal plumes resulting from the 1996 Gorda Ridge Event. Deep Sea Res., in press.

Theeuwes, F., and S. I. Yum. 1976. Principles of the design and operation of generic osmotic pumps for the delivery of semisolid or liquid drug formulations. Ann. Biomed. Eng., 4, 343-353.

Von Damm, K. L., S. E. Oosting, R. Kozlowski, L. G. Buttermore, D. C. Colodner, H. N. Edmonds, J. M. Edmond, and J. M. Grebmeier. 1995. Evolution of East Pacific Rise hydrothermal fluids following an oceanic eruption. Nature, 375, 47-50.

Wheat, C. G., H. W. Jannasch, F. J. Sansone, J. N. Plant, and C. L. Moyer. 1998. Hydrothermal Fluids From Loihi Seamount After the 1996 Event: A Year of Change Monitored With a Continuous Water Sampler. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., to be submitted.

3.4 Gas Sampling (Lee Evans)

The primary goal of gas sampling during the NeMO '98 expedition was direct sampling of vent fluids by way of Titanium Gastight Bottles and modified gas pistons on the PMEL Hot Fluid Sampler. Approximately 24 useful samples were gathered and their available gas contents extracted and sealed in glass ampoules for chemical analysis. These ampoules will be used for the analysis of helium concentrations and helium isotopes at PMEL, Newport and other gases such as hydrogen and methane at the University of Washington.

The geographic coverage of vent fluid sampling included the east side of Axial Volcano's caldera, Ashes vent field on the west side and CASM vent field at the north end of the caldera. Samples from the east side were largely low temperature diffuse fluids spanning most of the north to south extents of the known vent field. The one high temperature sample was from Castle Vent. At Ashes Vent Field numerous high temperature chimneys and diffuse sites were sampled. Some repeated sampling from July Alvin dives. Only two diffuse vents were sampled at CASM.

Other samples for helium analysis included about 80 samples in crimped copper tubing from 12 hydrocasts. Most were from just above vents which were sampled directly. They are expected to be useful in conjunction with methane analyses from the same Niskin bottles. One of the Osmosamplers consisted of a reel of thin copper tubing. Forming a time series over about 15 days at Marker 33, the reel was segmented into 48 samples, each of which represents about an 8 hour average of what emerged from the vent.

3.5 H2 and CH4 Oxidation (Betsy McLaughin-West)

A seafloor eruption event can result in any number of effects in existing hydrothermally active areas. The event that occurred at Axial Volcano during February 1998 presented an opportunity for further study of the types of changes that occur as a result of a seafloor eruption. One effect is an elevation of hydrogen concentrations in the venting fluids as a result of increased hot water/rock reactions. This dissolved hydrogen may be a significant energy source for bacteria. Previous work at Loihi Seamount following an eruption showed that microbial hydrogen oxidation rates were elevated in the hydrothermal plumes found above the seamount immediately following the event but dropped to background seawater levels within a few months. The February 1998 eruption event at Axial Volcano offered a second opportunity to study the microbial response to a sudden change in available hydrogen. During the NeMO 98 cruise, samples were collected from the plumes above Axial Volcano approximately 6-7 months after the event. Microbial hydrogen oxidation rates for these fluids will be determined from the results of radioisotopic uptake experiments performed aboard ship. These rates will be compared with a similar set of measurements made during the Axial Rapid Response cruise in February 1998. Microbial hydrogen and methane oxidation rates will also be determined for samples collected directly from the diffuse venting areas and the buoyant portions of the plumes so that the relative importance of these two gases to the microbial communities can be estimated.

3.6 Determination of Sulfide, Nitrate and Salinity Concentrations Without the Use of Reagents (Elizabeth Guenther)

I am a graduate student at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, my name is Elizabeth Guenther. Gary Massoth invited me on this cruise. I have been working on a project for my thesis work at Moss Landing with the help of my advisor, Ken Johnson. I have been working on a new method for the determination of sulfide, nitrate and salinity concentrations without the use of reagents. I measure the UV absorbance of a seawater sample and various standards and from that information I am able to predict the concentration of nitrate, salinity or sulfide. The purpose of this cruise was to determine if this method could be applied to vent fluids and if so, what are the possible interferences involved, if any?

I have collected samples from the fluid sampler that Dave Butterfield brought on the cruise as well as from the slurp sampler. These samples were analyzed for sulfide concentrations and will be used to determine if salinity and nitrate can also be calculated. The sulfide concentrations were compared to those predicted by the Methylene blue chemistry performed by Kevin Roe on this cruise. Preliminary examination of the data indicates that this new method may provide good estimates of the sulfide concentrations in the vent fluid samples. These data will be used in the MSC thesis and for publication.


4.1 Non-Mat Microbial Ecology (Jon Kaye and Julie Huber)

We focused on several aspects of vent microbial ecology during this cruise, much of which is geared toward defining time point #1 in a multi-year chemistry-microbiology data set with Dave Butterfield. We have used non-mat microbial samples and have cultured from 2-90C, covering all thermal classes and many metabolic groups of bacteria and archaea, in order to develop a comprehensive picture of non-mat microbial ecology at Axial Seamount. In addition, more narrowly focused goals include obtaining novel physiological classes of hyperthermophiles and quantifying halotolerant microbes in the vent environment and the overlying water column. 36 ml of water from all samples was preserved in 3.7% formaldehyde for microbial enumeration.

Hyperthermophiles were cultured in a 0.6% (w/v) organic medium, with and without native sulfur (yeast extract and peptone, YP, and with sulfur, YPS). Positive enrichments (which require confirmation on land) came from Crack, Gollum, Milky Vent, Mushroom, Bubbler #2, Marshmallow, background water in ASHES, Marker 33, Easy Vent, Roof, Castle, Styx, Magnesia, Old Tubeworms, West Caldera Wall, Snowblower, Medusa, Porkchop, near Cloud, Marker 113 Pandora worm slime, other animal inocula, and sulfide rock from Hell. Methanogens were enriched from many of these same locales. The Slurp Sampler and Dave's Fluid Sampler were equally effective for culturing purposes. Overall, hyperthermophiles are ubiquitous in and around ASHES and found in all sampled diffuse fluids in the caldera. However, no hyperthermophiles were cultured in YPS from a putative buoyant plume hit during hydrocast V-98-002 (Niskin #18) above Cloud.

Quantitative enrichments (MPNs, Most-Probable-Number technique) were performed at 90C from several sites. The table below contains the 95% confidence interval for the abundance of hyperthermophiles that grow in the given media, given in microbes/liter. These data are preliminary and must be confirmed by microscopy on land.

YPS (likely Thermococcus) YE (likely methanogens)

Marker 33 >48,000 140-4200

Marshmallow 3000-96,000

"Background" in ASHES 300-7600 <60

Caldera Wall, west of ASHES in progress

Total community DNA was captured from various diffuse flow, high-temperature and background sites and split into free-living (0.2-3 m) and particle-attached (>3m) fractions by filtration. Filters were frozen at -80C. Enrichments for methanogens, heterotrophic hyperthermophiles, sulfur oxidizers, and sulfate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were performed simultaneously from 2 to 90C, with the majority at 50 and 90C. Dave Butterfield, Kevin Roe, and Betsy McLaughlin-West made and will make further chemical measurements at the same sites. Likewise, complementary SUAVE data from Gary Massoth will be correlated with this microbial work.

Diffuse fluids, high-temperature fluids, sulfide rock, homogenized Paralvinella specimens, and animal mucus were inoculated into modified high-organic hyperthermophile media (YP and YPS) and incubated at 90C. Halotolerant hyperthermophiles able to grow in a 5% NaCl YPS medium appear ubiquitous, though media with 0.2% and 8% NaCl did not appear to allow growth. Metal-resistant hyperthermophiles capable of tolerating mM levels of Cd, Hg, Cu and Co were routinely cultured. Confirmation of growth must await phase-contrast microscopy on land.

Eight MPNs for mesophilic halotolerant microbes were performed on diffuse fluids, near-vent bottom water and hydrocast samples. The medium used enriches for heterotrophic bacterial and archaeal aerobes at room temperature. To complement these quantitative enrichments, water was filtered (0.2 m) and the filters frozen for Halomonas (a halotolerant bacterial genus) DNA probe work on land.

4.2 Microbiological Sampling for Molecular Microbial Ecology Analysis (Western Washington University, Biology Department: Craig L. Moyer & Karen Pelletreau.)

4.2.1 Introduction

One of the greatest challenges in microbial ecology is the accurate identification and description of microbial populations within their respective communities. This information is central to determining the extent of global microbial diversity, which remains the least understood of all the biological size classes. To address this challenge, molecular biological techniques using small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences have been applied to describe the structure and diversity of different microbial communities. The current endeavor is to examine specific habitats with known biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., S, Fe, Mn) to learn more about the dominant microorganisms residing therein. The focus of this study at Axial Volcano is to estimate the microbial community structure and diversity to assess the degree of commonality and uniqueness among local hydrothermal vent habitats, (i.e., vent-associated sediments, free-living microbial mats, microbes associated with subsurface floc-ejecta), and to also compare these results with distal hydrothermal vent habitats. This study will also allow for the enhanced development of a comprehensive global perspective regarding the diversity of deep-sea microbial communities.

Selective enrichment culture has severe limitations as an approach to the cultivation of naturally-occurring microorganisms. The majority (typically >90-99%) of microbes in nature have not yet been cultivated using traditional techniques. Consequently, it is very unlikely that collections of microbial isolates are representative of in situ diversity and community structure. Furthermore, because relatively nutrient-rich media are generally used for isolations, "weedy" or opportunistic microorganisms may be selected rather than those dominant in the natural community. The approach, herein, is to ascertain a microbial community's primary members through molecular (i.e., cell component) means and then to attempt to further characterize their respective phylogeny or natural history. Obtaining a better representation of microbial community structure and diversity is crucial to aspects of microbial ecology where Bacteria and Archaea interact with one another and with their environment, e.g., global biogeochemical cycling of matter, succession and disturbance responses, predator-prey relationships, and trophic-level interactions. These lessons can then be used to focus enrichment culture techniques towards ecologically significant taxa. This approach has been successfully used to isolate the dominant iron-oxidizer bacterial taxon found within the microbial community at hydrothermal systems located at Loihi Seamount, North Gorda Ridge, and other habitats (Emerson and Moyer, 1997; unpublished results).

Cell component analyses provide a culture-independent means of investigating microorganisms as they occur at hydrothermal vent systems (Moyer et al., 1994;1995; 1998). While several types of cell components have been analyzed, the SSU rRNA molecule offers an amount and type of information that makes it one of the best culture-independent descriptors or biomarkers of microorganisms. In recent years a detailed theory of evolutionary relationships among the domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya has emerged from comparisons of SSU rRNA "signature" sequences. For example, each SSU rRNA gene contains highly conserved regions found among all living organisms as well as diagnostic variable regions unique to particular organisms or closely related groups. Additionally, each SSU rRNA gene contains about 1,500 nucleotides of sequence information that can be obtained and utilized to differentiate among closely-related and distantly-related groups of microorganisms. This type of molecular approach allows the autecology of microorganisms to be studied whether or not they can be been cultivated (Moyer et al., 1996). In addition, the phylogenetically described taxa or "phylotypes" can be placed in a synecology context through the examination of SSU rRNA clone libraries generated from a microbial community and habitat diversity can be analyzed through rarefaction (Moyer et al., 1998). These features make SSU rRNAs particularly useful for studies of molecular microbial ecology, where a broad and unknown range diversity of microorganisms is likely to exist. Currently, over 10,000 SSU rRNA sequences from both cultured isolates and environmental phylotypes have been made available for study through the Ribosomal Database Project at NSF's Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University.

4.2.2 Shipboard Processing and Storage of SamplesA dual approach was used for microbial sampling. First, a "slurp" gun suction device was be used in combination with a rotating rosette of sample bottles to "vacuum" and capture free-living microbial mats from the surface of various hydrothermal vent habitats. Slurp gun samples were successfully obtained from the East-Side of Axial at (1) Marker #33 Vent, (2) Snow Blower Vent near Pit, (3) Milky Vent Floc, (4) Cloud Vent Floc, (5) yellow mats near EZ Vent, and (6) red iron-oxides near Milky Vent. Similar samples obtained in and around the ASHES area include, (1) orange oxides near Gollum Vent, (2) white mat from Gollum Vent, and (3) yellow mat from the West Wall to the northwest from ASHES.

Second, the deployment and recovery of bacterial traps using glass wool as a substrate for microbial growth. Bacteria traps were constructed using a cluster of three 3" sections of 4"o.d. Plexiglas tubing, surrounded top and bottom by a 202 Ám nylon mesh (Nytex) to exclude macrofauna grazing. These were placed directly into diffuse vents and were used to collect colonizing microorganisms in an effort to examine community succession. These were deployed with the idea of attempting a time-series with both short-term (days) and long-term (annual) time scales. This objective was partially achieved with short-term recoveries made at Marker #33, Cloud Vent, and Milky Vent on the East-Side of Axial Volcano. Long-term deployments were made at these three sites as well as at EZ Vent, Axial Gardens, Castle Mound, and at four sites within the ASHES Vent Field (Gollum, ROPOS, Hillock, Mushroom). Short-term recoveries from these sites (especially at ASHES) will be attempted again next year, in addition to the long-term recoveries from each of the sites listed above.

Microbial samples collected were each independently processed. Microbial biomass preservation was achieved by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and storing on dry ice or ultrafreezer (-80C) until return to the laboratory. These samples will be used for the direct extraction of nucleic acids. A series of sub-samples were also (i) cryo-preserved (again using liquid nitrogen quick-freezing) with 40% glycerol, and (ii) aliquots were stored at 4C, both for enrichment culture selection. Another series of sub-samples was fixed with 2.5% EM grade glutaraldehyde for examination with SEM and epifluorescence microscopy.

4.2.3 Laboratory Processing and Molecular Biological Analysis

Initially, all samples will be examined by epifluorescence microscopy in an effort to ascertain biomass estimates and examine morphological diversity. A subset of these will also be examined through SEM and an analysis of extractable lipids, which provides an estimate of microbial biomass and initial clues into community structure. The overall molecular biological strategy used will be essentially that of Moyer et al. (1994, 1995; 1998) with a few technical and logistical improvements. The first step will be the efficient and direct extraction of high molecular weight nucleic acids from quick-frozen samples. This will be followed by PCR amplification of SSU rDNAs using previously defined conditions to maximize the equal representation from each population contained within a respective community. The concept is to proportionally amplify or make several copies using the total genomic DNA from a natural community serving as the template for oligonucleotide primers that are complementary to universally conserved SSU rDNA sequence positions. Representative SSU rDNA amplification products are cloned generating a clone library. Clone libraries will then examined through the use of Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis or ARDRA and by using rarefaction as a metric for organismal diversity (Moyer et al., 1998). This approach, using tetrameric restriction enzymes, has been shown to detect >99% of the taxa (i.e., phylotypes) present within a model dataset with maximized diversity (Moyer et al., 1996). SSU rDNA sequences will also be subjected to phylogenetic analysis (using distance matrix and maximum likelihood algorithms) to estimate the affiliated ancestral lineage for each dominant community member thereby yielding clues as to their respective evolutionary history and potential physiology.


Emerson, D., and C. L. Moyer. 1997. Isolation and characterization of novel iron-oxidizing bacteria that grow at circumneutral pH. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4784-4792.

Moyer, C. L., F. C. Dobbs, and D. M. Karl. 1994. Estimation of diversity and community structure through restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:871-879.

Moyer, C. L., F. C. Dobbs, and D. M. Karl. 1995. Phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1555-1562.

Moyer, C. L., J. M. Tiedje, F. C. Dobbs, and D. M. Karl. 1996. A computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial SSU rRNA genes: efficacy of selected tetrameric restriction enzymes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2501-2507.

Moyer, C. L., J. M. Tiedje, F. C. Dobbs, and D. M. Karl. 1998. Diversity of deep-sea hydrothermal vent Archaea. Deep-Sea Res. II. 45:303-317.

4.3 Biomineralization/Lava Mats (Kim Juniper, University of Quebec, Montreal: Steve Scott, University of Toronto)

Early in the cruise we observed extensive deposits of iron-rich floc of possible microbial origin covering the new lavas in the East Rift Zone. The deposits were heavy enough to mask the normally glassy appearance of the new lavas and actually prevented us from confirming the present of the new flow until early in the second week of the cruise. Similar deposits had been observed and sampled on the new lavas at the FLOW site on CoAxial segment shortly after the June 1993 eruption. However, this coverage was much more extensive and was not the same bright orange color as the CoAxial oxide mats. The extent and thickness oxide deposits on the new Axial lavas varied along an east-west traverse across the flow. Heaviest deposits were in the central part of the lava flow where some bright-orange oxide material was still being deposited at a few active vents. At the edges of the flow, oxide material was brownish in color, and was being reworked by deposit feeding invertebrates such as holothurians (sea cucumbers) that had moved in from adjacent older lavas.

A systematic sampling of the putative microbial floc was undertaken during dives 474 and 476 that conducted a series of East-West and West-East traverses of the new lava from beginning in the south and ending near Milky Vent. Samples (7 in all) were both fixed for electron microscopy and frozen for elemental and mineralogical analyses, and measurements of microbial enzyme activity. This work will be carried out by an M.Sc. student at the University of Toronto who will work under the direction Steve Scott, and who will travel to UQAM in Montreal to work with Kim Juniper on biological aspects. The aim of the study will be to characterize the material mineralogically, confirm its microbial origin and map relative density of the deposits across the lava flow in order to understand the relationship to thickness of the underlying new lavas. The latter information is important to testing a working hypothesis that heating of surface flows by underlying lava caused leaching of reduced iron into the seawater, permitting colonization by iron-oxidizing bacteria.

Samples were also collected of iron-oxide deposits and small oxide mounds near the ASHES field for comparison of mineralogy and microbiology with the oxide material from the East Rift Zone lava flows.


5.1 High Temperature Chimney Biology (Damien Grelon, Christian Levesque & Kim Juniper, University of Quebec, Montreal UQAM)

This work focused on study of the feeding behavior and microbial food resources of the sulfide worm, Paralvinella sulfincola, on newly-formed surfaces of sulfide chimneys in the ASHES field. The worm lives in a mucus tube cemented to the sulfide and appears to feed around the opening of its tube by scraping organic material off the mineral surface. Temperatures in excess of 50C have been measured in this habitat and the worm is a prime candidate for a first-ever identified trophic link between thermophilic/hyperthermophilic bacteria and an animal. Field work concentrated on:

1) Making in situ video recordings of worm behavior for analysis of feeding behavior and territoriality .

2) Collecting samples of worm populations and chimney material for analysis of population structure, organic matter concentration and stable isotope ratios in food and animal tissues.

3) Acquisition of temperature/chemistry information from the worm's habitat to examine environmental controls on feeding behavior and food abundance

The behavioral and environmental data form the core of an M.Sc. thesis by Damien Grelon while the stable isotope study is part of a M.Sc. project on hydrothermal vent trophic links by Christian Levesque.

We obtained 3-4 hours of recordings of worm behavior from 5 sites in the ASHES field. Worms from all but one of the observational sites were sampled using the ROPOS suction sampler, and either frozen or formalin-fixed prior to analysis at UQAM. One site was designated for time series observations and revisited twice during the cruise to follow worm migration and behavioral changes in relation to changes in fluid flow patterns.

In collaboration with Gary Massoth, a total of 15 SUAVE scans were performed among sulfide worm populations after behavioral observations.

The big surprise was the aggressive territoriality of the worms, in relation to each other. Individuals frequently probed and entered the feeding area of others, and physical contact between residents and invaders often resulted rapid, aggressive striking movements. Both feeding and territorial behavior will be systematically analyzed in relation to organism density, site and environmental factors.

5.2 Stable Isotope Food Web Analyses (Christian Levesque, Damien Grelon & Kim Juniper, University of Quebec, Montreal)

The importance of free-living microbes as a food source for deposit feeding and suspension feeding animals at hydrothermal vents is still poorly understood. The intent of the study was to concentrate on identifying the food resources exploited by two co-occurring polychaete worms that colonize sulfide chimneys in the ASHES field. The working hypothesis was that the sulfide worm (Paralvinella sulficola) and the palm worm (Paralvinella palmiformis) manage to share the same space by not competing for food. Preliminary data showed clear differences in stable isotope ratios between the two species, confirming apparent differences in feeding behavior with the sulfide worm seeming to deposit feed on surfaces while the palm worm appeared to mainly feeding by trapping suspended particles in turbulent flow. Several collections were made of both worm species as well as of organic material from chimney surfaces. We were also able to use the ROPOS suction sampler to make 3 collections of suspended particles from above colonies of palm worms. All material will be analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen.

The stable isotope work was also expanded in response to the observation of extensive white bacteria mats at new vents on the lava flow in the East Rift Zone. These mats were being grazed upon by at least two species of scale worm. These first vent animal colonists could be seen to be actively scraping microbial mat from rock surfaces. At a few locations, small vent snails were also abundant and grazing on bacterial mats. Collections of scale worms, snails and bacterial mats were made at several sites for stable isotope analysis to confirm this trophic link. Previous observations at CoAxial suggested the importance of post-eruptive microbial blooms as a resource for vent animals. These samples will permit us to make considerable progress in understanding this early phase of ecosystem development.

5.3 Biology of Low Temperature Sites (Verena Tunnicliffe, Maia Tsurumi and Jean Marcus)

5.3.1 Introduction:

This biology program focused on four study themes: i) evaluation of colonization on the new lavas, ii) nature of the regional distribution of species and populations, iii) the composition of communities in different fluid chemistries, and iv) the biology of the vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae. We were most fortunate to receive over a dozen samples that had either SUAVE or fluid sampler information with them. To our knowledge, this is the first such coordination of widespread sampling at low temperature sites. Previously, it has been very difficult to obtain environmental information with biological samples. For us, this information is a triumph for the cruise.

5.3.2 Colonization:

The opportunity to observe colonization of new hydrothermal vents so soon after a known eruption is a rare opportunity. From our limited experience at CoAxial, we had predicted small vestimentiferan recruits with three or four other known species. Our dives, however, identified three types of colonization, one of which was the predicted pattern. The others were dense snails and a mix of scale worm species. The large expanse of new lava created geographic separation among the sites. The cause of three distinct colonization patterns likely relates to either stochastic events governing larval delivery or differing chemical character across the flow. Hopefully, chemical and microbial information will help resolve this issue.

In addition to type of colonization, extent also varied. The most vigorous flows of Milky and Cloud Vents hosted few animals while nearby vents were colonized. To understand more about sources, we were able to sample vents on old lavas. A large field of tubeworms (the SONNE field) was obliterated by the eruption but outlier colonies remained. We can compare composition of these colonies with recruits this year and next. We also have taken samples for a genetic analysis of one species to determine the likely source of the new populations. An interesting complication is that many of the "old" worm colonies are now experiencing rejuvenated fluid flow resulting in morphological changes in the resident worms and new recruitment.

5.3.3 Regional Character:

Axial Volcano is one of the few places on the Ridge that allows us to study discrete well-separated communities. A current question in vent ecology is how populations interchange among sites. We need better description of species distributions in a regional setting. We are finding that some species are curiously patchy and are attempting to apply ecological concepts of metapopulations to model population patterns. To this end, samples from the Eastern Rift (north and south), ASHES, Northern Rift and CASM form five essential contemporaneous points in this model. These samples will be sorted to determine compositional differences as well as including a population genetic analysis of one species.

5.3.4 Local Variation:

Collections at ASHES are to be used in two studies. Firstly, they set the basis for local variability for assessment of regional differences in the study above. Secondly, they provide an important set of samples to complement samples from earlier years in a study of spatial and temporal change. The polychaete species will be examined in detail to relate relative abundances to position and chemical character of the fluids. As little work has been published on "whole communities" this basic step is a useful contribution to understanding vent community dynamics. As part of this work on polychaetes, the unusual scaleworm collected from the new lavas of the Eastern Rift will be examined in detail in conjunction with Juniper's isotope work.

5.3.5 Ridgeia piscesae:

The tubeworm forms the basis for the vent communities of Juan de Fuca. As such, there is considerable interest in understanding more about its requirements and basic biology. Samples that were collected with coordinated fluid data will be examined in a study of size, reproductive condition, trophosome condition and juvenile recruitment. The aim is to understand the chemical conditions that are optimal and marginal for both reproduction and recruitment. Specimens were also processed for ultrastructural examination on the beach. Here, the intent is to collect detailed morphological characters to test models of the evolutionary relationships of vestimentiferans. Lastly, specimens of live tubeworms were transported to the Aquatic Facility of University of Victoria to attempt in vitro fertilization of eggs. Study of embryological characters adds information to both phylogenetic studies and dispersal capabilities.

5.3.6 A Final Comment:

The interdisciplinary nature of this cruise has been of considerable benefit to understanding biological features of the vent communities. It is an important learning environment for experienced researchers and students alike. Particularly welcome, is the opportunity to develop collaborations when new opportunities present themselves.

5.3.7 MacroBiological Sample List from Low-Temperature Sites

S=SUAVE; HFS=Hot Fluid Sampler


Tube worm grabs

Ě R466-3: Mkr L, tube worm grab of hat-like structure (S)

Ě R466-8: Hairdo vent, huge tube worm grab of bouquet-like structure (S)

Ě R471-6: Mkr i, tube worm grab, left a marker to SUAVE later

Ě R471-3: Gollum vent, tube worm grab (HFS)

Ě R472-3: Medusa vent, tube worm grab (HFS)


Suction Samples from new lavas

Ě R462-2: mkr 33, suction sample of mat and polynoids (S)

Ě R462-3: mkr 33, suction sample of mat and polynoids (S)

Ě R462-4: mkr 33, suction sample of mat and polynoids (S)

Ě R473-6: easy vent, suction sample of polynoids and mat

Ě R473-18: mkr 33, suction sample of new polynoids and mat (S)

Ě R473-21: mkr 108, suction sample for new worm and mat

Ě R474-3: mkr N41, suction sample of tube worms (S)

Tube worm grabs

Ě R461-15: mkr 113, tube worm grab from a new vent on old lavas (S)

Ě R464-9: near mkr 113, tube worm grab of moribund worms on old lavas

Ě R464-14: mkr N5, tube worm grab of live-looking worms on sulfide structure near Castle (S)

Ě R476-3: oldworms, tube worm grab of reinvigorated venting on old lavas (HFS)

Ě R478-8: nascent vent, tube worm grab of new tube worms on new lavas (S)

Ě R478-11: old flow, tube worm grab of reinvigorated venting on old lavas (S)

Ě R478-13: large tube worms, tube worm grab of reinvigorated venting on old lavas (stayed in Pacman until surface) (S)


Tube worm grab

Ě R467-4: Bob vent, tube worm grab of old venting (S)


Tube worm grab

Ě R480-7: T & S vent, tube worm grab of healthy worms on sulfide (S)


Hydrothermal deposits are known from previous expeditions at the ASHES, Southeastern Rift and CASM Vent fields. During the NeMO expedition, considerable work was done in and around ASHES and USRZ (Upper South Rift Zone). A short visit was made to CASM.

At the ASHES field, Hell, Inferno, ROPOS and Mushroom are sizable hydrothermally active sulfide spires a few meters high. Virgin and Virgin's Daughters are small active anhydrite chimneys. Those who had seen ASHES on previous expeditions commented that Mushroom, Inferno and Hillock had thickened considerably. Hillock, for example, had grown from a small spindle to a much more massive structure. A small chimney and flange were sampled at Hell. The chimney is predominantly iron-rich zinc sulfide (probably wurtzite based on the hexagonal shape of its millimetric crystals) with a central conduit lined by a copper -iron sulfide (probably isocubanite). The flange, although finer grained, appears to have the same mineralogy with the probable isocubanite forming in hot water ponded buoyantly against the underside.

At Southeastern Rift, a sulfide structure that had been seen in a 1996 Sonne camera tow was named "Castle" by the NeMO expedition. The main structure is about 10 m high, 3 m diameter at its base and 5 m at its top. The top is festooned with 50 cm high chimneys which inspired the name Castle. The edifice appears to be sitting on a small pillow mound within what otherwise is a ~5 meter depression. Diffuse venting is occurring in many places on Castle. On its southwest side there is a small anhydrite spire that is actively venting hot water. This was sampled on an early dive and had regrown to its ~50 cm height just 9 days later. About 10 m southeast of Castle there is another sulfide structure of similar size to Castle named "Flat Top" by the NeMO expedition. It, too, has diffuse venting although seemingly not as much as Castle. About 10 m south of Castle is a small spire, about 1 m tall, that appears to be extinct. It could be gathered in its entirety using the elevator.

CASM was a huge surprise. The site is within and adjacent to a 5-10 m wide fissure on the floor of the caldera where the north rift slices the northern wall. When discovered in August 1983 on a Pisces IV dive, there were just a few diffuse vents supporting small colonies of tube worms and other animals. Now, vents such as Shepherd Vent, for example, are much more robust. About 50 m north of Shepherd there are several hydrothermally active spires ~3 m tall and supporting abundant life. Hot focused flow, wide spread diffuse flow and abundant gas bubbles characterize the hydrothermalism. Samples of one spire are predominantly zinc sulfide, with well formed crystals (wurtzite?) in places. Small patches of coarse crystalline copper-iron sulfide are also evident. Despite being very prominent and obvious features within the confines of the fissure, these spires were not seen in 1983 dives nor in 1988 dives (V. Tunnicliffe). They must have formed since 1988.

A quick look was taken at the Lamphere Chimneys about 20 m east of the fissure. The main structure, whose diffuse venting supported abundant life in 1983, is no longer active and is practically devoid of animals.

Is the recent volcanic activity in the caldera reflected in the sulfide deposits? It is tempting to contemplate that the renewed high temperature hydrothermalism at Castle may be a consequence of the nearby volcanism. There is no obvious effect on the deposits at ASHES (although there may be in the vent fluids themselves, see report by Butterfield). The new (since 1988) CASM chimneys are too large to have been formed since the January-February eruptions.

With three sulfide sites now known (and there may be more) in widely separated places within the caldera, there is now the opportunity to study mineralization processes through time in somewhat different settings and to study the interaction of mineralization and biology at different stages of population development. Also, if the petrological studies (see report by J. Chadwick) demonstrate that there are differences in basalt chemistry at the different sites, the opportunity exists to examine the relation, if any, between the composition of sulfides and their host rocks.


7.1 CTD Operations (Jim Gendron)

7.1.1 NeMO'98 CTD Casts

During leg IIb of the NeMO98 Vents cruise a total of 11 vertical casts and 2 tows were completed. Samples that were collected included 55 filters for XRF analysis and 53 salinity samples. Other samples that were collected included He, methane, hydrogen, H2S, O2 and bacteria samples. Samples for particulate organic carbon were also taken.

In general, most of the results of the sampling will not be known until the samples are analyzed on shore. The distribution of the particle plumes that were seen by the nephelometer seemed to follow the same patterns as were found on leg 1. Large concentrations of particles were present over the new vent area southeast of the caldera, at ASHES vent field and south of ASHES. The CASM site showed similar plumes and it is possible that a buoyant plume was detected there on the downcast.

7.1.2 NeMO'98 CTD Cast Locations and Stations Table

Vents98C Brown leg IIb cast latitude longitude
site SE caldera cast 1 45 55.2' 129 59'
date Aug 27
station V98c01
site MKR 33 cast 2 45 55.99' 129 58.89'
date Aug 28
station V98C02
site BKG cast 3 46 0.00' 129 55.5'
date Aug 30
station V98C03
site CASTLE cast 4 45 55.58' 129 58.78'
date Aug 31
station V98C04
site ASHES cast 5 45 56' 130 0.84'
date Sep 1
station V98C05
site E BKG cast 6 45 46' 129 44'
date Sep 2
station V98C06
site S CALDERA cast 8 45 54.4' 129 59.6'
date Sep 6
station V98C07
site S CALDERA cast 9 45 54.6' 130 00.0'
date Sep 8
station V98C08
site ASHES cast 10 45 56' 130 0.84'
date Sep 9
station V98C09
site CASM cast 11 45 59.35' 130 1.63'
date Sep 10
station V98C10
site MRK 33 cast 13 45 56' 129 58.89'
date Sep 17
station V98C11
site W WALL cast 7 45 54.4' 129 59.92'
date Sep 4
station T98C01
site W WALL cast 12 45 59.96' 130 3.2'
date Sep 12
station T98C02

7.2 Rock Sampling (John Chadwick, University of Florida)

7.2.1 Operations

Core sampling was performed on the NeMO August/September 1998 cruise to acquire basaltic glass samples during intervals between ROPOS dives. Forty-nine coring attempts were made using the sampler borrowed from Dr. Dan Fornari at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. In addition, 22 rock and glass samples were acquired on ROPOS dives, both as large specimens and also small glass shards collected inadvertently by the "slurp sampler" used to obtain biological specimens. Glass from these samples will be analyzed for major and trace element compositions at the University of Florida and laboratories at other universities, including microprobe analysis. Specimens from the January, 1998 flow collected by the ROPOS will be sent to the University of Hawaii for Polonium/Lead age testing.

Six core samples were acquired on the north flank and north rift zone of Axial Volcano, one each on the east and west flanks, one in the Vance segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (sediment collected only) and the remaining forty core samples were obtained on the southern flank and southern rift zone. Glass quality ranged from very fresh (found largely on the rift zone directly south of Axial) to very degraded. Fe-sediments, palagonite, and pelagic sediments were commonly associated with the more degraded samples. Fresh glass samples have conchoidal fracture and usually have little or no associated sediment. The degree of degradation of the glass and amount of sediment is a first-order assessment of the age of the basalts, and suggests that the ridge directly south of the caldera has witnessed the most recent activity on the volcano, including the 1998 eruption.

The core sampling was performed on a CTD wire, and bathymetry was acquired in real time using the Bathy-2000 unit on the Ronald Brown. The sampler was sent down at 30 meters/minute for the first 50 meters below the surface, then the speed was subsequently increased to 60 m/min. A 30 second stop was performed about 30 m above the bottom to allow the sampler to settle and the wire angle to decrease to vertical. The sampler was then driven into the bottom at 60 m/min, and an additional 15 m of wire was unspooled to allow for errors in the bathymetry. This method led to a 100% success rate in contacting the bottom in a vertical position and acquiring samples. The sampler was then withdrawn from the bottom at 20 m/min until off the bottom, then the speed was increased to 50 m/min to the surface.

7.2.2 Rock Core Sample List

Core Samples
sample map loc. date lat lon map depth (m) bathy depth (m) sample wire angle location
98-JDFRC-01 21 8/29/98 45d 53.53' 129d 59.82' 1635 1631 glass ~0 South Rift
98-JDFRC-02 34 8/29/98 45d 51.21' 129d 58.55' 1790 1820 glass+seds ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-03 29 8/29/98 45d 49.72' 130d 00.78' 1775 1770 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-04 28 8/29/98 45d 49.95' 130d 00.70' 1780 1823 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-05 27 8/29/98 45d 49.96' 130d 00.32' 1805 1801 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-06 26 8/29/98 45d 50.18' 130d 00.58' 1760 1930 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-07 15 8/31/98 45d 47.20' 130d 03.58' 1840 1838 seds+grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-08 14 8/31/98 45d 47.85' 130d 03.56' 1845 1839 seds+grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-09 13 8/31/98 45d 48.07' 130d 03.45' 1840 1979 seds+grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-10 36 9/1/98 45d 57.69' 129d 57.80' 1530 1532 seds+glass ~0 E. Flank
98-JDFRC-11 24 9/3/98 45d 51.03' 130d 00.37' 1755 1759 glass+boulder! ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-12 25 9/3/98 45d 50.40' 130d 00.53' 1765 1805 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-13 17 9/3/98 45d 50.64' 130d 01.61' 1785 1869 glass+seds ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-14 37 9/5/98 45d 56.45' 130d 01.50' 1415 1425 grungy glass ~0 SW Flank
98-JDFRC-15 1 9/5/98 45d 53.66' 130d 01.91' 1625 1635 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-16 33 9/6/98 45d 47.54' 130d 01.55' 1845 1865 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-17 32 9/6/98 45d 47.90' 130d 01.70' 1845 1916 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-18 31 9/6/98 45d 48.52' 130d 01.16' 1820 1870 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-19 38 9/6/98 45d 41.52' 130d 02.48' 1840 1823 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-20 39 9/7/98 45d 40.30' 130d 03.30' 1975 2001 seds only ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-21 40 9/7/98 45d 38.20' 130d 04.88 2025 2000 grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-22 3 9/8/98 45d 52.24' 130d 02.80' 1670 1700 grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-23 2 9/8/98 45d 52.82' 130d 02.50' 1655 1730 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-24 6 9/9/98 45d 51.16' 130d 02.28' 1745 1810 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-25 7 9/10/98 45d 50.60' 130d 02.78' 1765 1770 seds only ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-26 9 9/10/98 45d 50.06' 130d 02.91' 1780 1785 glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-27 18 9/10/98 45d 50.05' 130d 01.55' 1785 1791 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-28 43 9/10/98 46d 0.45' 130d 01.50' 1555 1584 glass ~0 N. Flank
98-JDFRC-29 42 9/10/98 45d 59.68' 130d 00.45' 1485 1497 grungy glass ~0 N. Flank
98-JDFRC-30 19 9/11/98 45d 49.27' 130d 02.25' 1785 1786 grungy glass <5 SR
98-JDFRC-31 20 9/11/98 45d 49.00' 130d 01.66' 1825 1820 grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-32 30 9/11/98 45d 48.80' 130d 00.78' 1830 1942 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-33 16 9/12/98 45d 50.62' 130d 01.89' 1800 1802 grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-34 8 9/12/98 45d 50.42' 130d 02.85' 1760 1776 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-35 22 9/14/98 45d 51.67' 130d 00.68' 1740 1754 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-36 35 9/14/98 45d 49.58' 129d 57.83' 1915 1925 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-37 44 9/14/98 45d 47.38' 129d 55.48' 2235 2241 seds only ~0 Vance
98-JDFRC-38 41 9/14/98 45d 45.75' 130d 02.25' 1720 1754 seds+glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-39 23 9/15/98 45d 51.65' 130d 00.17' 1730 1746 glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-40 4 9/15/98 45d 50.40' 130d 04.20' 1860 1860 seds+grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-41 5 9/15/98 45d 53.36' 130d 01.74' 1645 1653 seds+glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-42 46 9/16/98 46d 01.36' 129d 59.79' 1585 1586 glass ~0 N. Flank
98-JDFRC-43 10 9/16/98 45d 49.86' 130d 02.85' 1785 1786 glass+seds ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-44 11 9/16/98 45d 49.65' 130d 03.00' 1780 1778 glass+seds ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-45 12 9/16/98 45d 48.32' 130d 03.61' 1835 1830 grungy glass ~0 SR
98-JDFRC-46 47 9/16/98 45d 44.90' 130d 01.85' 1700 1740 glass ~0 N. Rift
98-JDFRC-47 48 9/18/98 46d 02.93' 129d 58.97' 1640 1724 grungy glass ~0 N. Rift
98-JDFRC-48 49 9/18/98 46d 03.96' 129d 58.07' 1675 1768 glass ~0 N. Rift
98-JDFRC-49 50 9/18/98 46d 03.74' 129d 57.78' 1680 1771 glass ~0 N. Rift
ROPOS SAMPLE latitude longitude hand sample glass subsample comments
R460-04 45d 56.63' 129d 59.13' n y
R460-06 45d 56.00' 129d 58.90' y y cloud vent
R461-25 45d 55.62' 129d 58.79' y y
R461-26 45d 55.62' 129d 58.79' y y 1998 flow **
R461-16 45d 55.36' 129d 59.30' y y marker 113
R462-08 45d 56.00' 129d 58.94' n y marker 33
R462-15 45d 56.00' 129d 58.91' y y cloud vent
R464-06 45d 56.00' 129d 58.91' n y
R465-01 45d 52.16' 129d 59.17' y y
R465-02 45d 52.17' 129d 59.18' y y drip structure
R467-01 46d 01.13' 130d 00.98' n y north rift
R471-04 45d 56.02' 130d 00.82' n y gollum vent
R471-06 45d 56.02' 130d 00.82' n y white vent
R473-18 45d 56.00' 129d 58.93' n y marker 33
R473-21 45d 55.72' 129d 58.98' n y east axial-mkr 108
R473-06 45d 56.73' 129d 59.09' n y easy vent
R474-03 45d 56.16' 129d 58.89' n y 1998 flow**
R474-02 45d 55.98' 129d 58.68' n y
R476-07 45d 56.78' 129d 59.10' n y magnesia vent
R476-02 45d 56.76' 129d 59.08' y y 1998 flow **
R478-08 45d 56.15' 129d 58.89' n y nascent vent
R479-15 45d 56.00' 130d 00.84' n y medusa vent-ASHES

7.3 SeaBeam 2100 Survey of Brown Bear Seamount (Susan Merle)

A SeaBeam survey was conducted during weather-down time, September 6, 1998. The goal was to survey Brown Bear Seamount along the edge of previous multibeam data, extending our coverage to the west. Only 22 kilometers of the proposed survey were completed, but data were collected while transiting.

SeaBeam was started up shortly after leaving Axial Caldera area. A 30 km line (east to west) took us to the start point of the proposed survey area. A 22 km line (southwest to northeast) brought us over what we presume was the western edge of the seamount summit. At that point the weather cleared, and we steamed back to Axial caldera, a 38 km line (northwest to southeast).

Grid extents: 130deg 43min W, 129deg49min W, 45deg40min N, 46deg10min N.

90 km of tracklines total, including transit. (22 km of the proposed survey completed)

Depth range from 2800 meters to 500 meters.

Most swath data collected with 4500 meter swath width, at shallowest point swath width was 2700 meters.

Ship speed averaged about 12 knots.

Total survey time, including transit: 4 hours.

8.0 NeMO'98 New Millennium Observatory WEB SITE (Gene Williamson, Susan Merle, Andra Bobbitt)

Our goal was to create a web site that would attract the interest of secondary school students and teachers and would allow interested individuals to follow the progress of the expedition to the Axial Seamount. The ship-based portion of the web site was designed with five major components. The first was a daily science summary that was to outlined the work that was being done. The second was a personal perspective written each day by a different member of the investigation team or ship's personnel. The third was a daily perspective and reaction paper written by the "teacher-at-sea." The fourth was a weekly science summary written by the Chief Scientist. The final component was an interactive question and answer section that would allow inquisitive students to funnel questions through Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC), at Newport Oregon, directly to the science staff aboard the ship.

The web site was designed, and all of the entries were coordinated, onshore at HMSC. Text and images were sent from the ship to HMSC to be inserted into the NeMO html maintained by Andra Bobbitt in Newport. On shore there were also two complementary educational components. A teacher working at HMSC who identified or designed hands-on activities for students coordinated with the work being done aboard the ship. These activities were posted to the web for use by classroom teachers or individual students. The teacher on shore was also responsible for using material from the web site to make daily presentations to the general public at HMSC.

While we do not have a count of the number of hits on the web site, we do have a few indicators of how the site was received. Several e-mails received from relatives of science and ROPOS personnel indicated they were very pleased with the ability to know what was happening and how there family member was involved in the process. Likewise, those on board the ship expressed positive reactions to the information that was being posted. We do not have any indication at this time of success in integrating our material into classrooms. We were disappointed by the lack of questions from students to scientists. This was due in part to the fact that most schools opened after we were already at sea. We will need to reassess this part of the program to see if we can improve the performance in the future.

The website has served as a valuable reference tool postcruise. We have received numerous contacts from publications inquiring about the NeMO mission and requesting images and information. The site will remain on the web until our NeMO 99 cruise.


9.1 Navigation Overview (Julia Getsiv)

All ROPOS dives were navigated using long-baseline transponder nets in the Seascape navigation program. The navigation computer had three main inputs into the Seascape navigation program to aid in ROPOS navigation: P-code GPS input from the R/V Brown SCS system, ROV depth data provided by the ROPOS sensor input and the PS8000 data input for the range meter. Transponder deployment and calibration took approximately 22 hours, beginning on August 27th (GMT time) and nine transponders were deployed (six expendables, two NOAA recoverables and one ROPOS recoverable). Three transponder nets were calibrated on a net by net basis using the Seascape Relcal Acquisition program. Transponder ranges were gathered while the ship drove a diamond-shaped pattern, allowing us to gather range data across each transponder baseline and within the middle of each net. The data were first crunched in the Seascape program Relcal, which determines the relative positions of the transponders to each other. Next, absolute transponder positions were calculated in Abscal, which applies a rotation about the net center to the relative positions of the transponders, ultimately fitting them into the best 'real' space positions.

Navigation of the cage and the ROV on the seafloor went very well and provided excellent navigation for most of the dives. Once the cage reached its final depth and ROPOS drove to the seafloor, the cage depth was manually entered into the Seascape program and was held constant, unless the wire out for the cage changed during the dive. The range meter was attached to the top of the cage, was hard-wired to the hydro lab and triggered by Seascape on the navigation computer. Cage fixes were excellent for most of the dives with RMS errors of 4 or less. Unfortunately, a software bug was discovered a few dives into the cruise, where ROV fixes were calculated based on the cage depth, even though sensor data was providing updated ROV depths. This was brought to our attention when we noticed the transponder ranges were all overshooting at the ROV fix, giving RMS errors in excess of 15 to 20. This also meant that there was a significant offset between 4 transponder fixes and 3 or 2 transponder fixes. Testing the ROV fixes using the cage depth in 2-D further confirmed our conclusion on the software error. We then began navigating trying both 3-D and 2-D navigation and finally settled on using 2-D navigation since 3-D navigation was giving ROV depth values off by as much as a few hundred meters. 2-D navigation provided consistent navigation fixes between 2, 3 and 4 transponder fixes with RMS errors as low as 2 in some areas. 2-D navigation did however require periodically updating the ROV depth as we navigated along the seafloor. Navigation fixes are recorded in latitude/longitude and UTM x/y (in meters) in the log files and were processed by Julia Getsiv in the IDL programs navedit2 and navedit3 (written by Bill Chadwick).

9.2 Final Calibrated Transponder Positions

North Rift Net

Transponder UTM-X (m) UTM-Y (m) Latitude Longitude Depth
9.5 420814.65 5098603.9 46 02.1857' 130 01.3988' 1433.9
10.5 422722.92 5097596.31 46 01.6548' 129 59.9096' 1395.43
8.0 420055.52 5095969.44 46 00.7580' 130 01.9608' 1377.93
7.5 422074.85 5094971.24 46 00.2330' 130 00.3862' 1294.46


Transponder UTM-X (m) UTM-Y (m) Latitude Longitude Depth
11.5 424283.25 5087181.51 45 56.0418' 129 58.6011' 1305.4
10.5 424221.58 5084426.79 45 54.5540' 129 58.6227' 1340.36
9.5 422490.35 5086188.55 45 55.4937' 129 59.9789' 1324.67
11.0 422556.72 5088014.47 45 56.4800' 129 59.9453' 1330.85

South Rift Net

Transponder UTM-X (m) UTM-Y (m) Latitude Longitude Depth
10.0/G 424339.74 5080575.33 45 52.476' 129 58.494' 1471.69
10.5/ROPOS 421633.49 5080433.39 45 52.380' 130 00.588' 1401.68
12.5/E 423532.00 5078487.15 45 51.342' 129 59.100' 1492.90

9.3 Vents/Markers/Targets Location Table

Target Latitude Longitude UTM X UTM Y
ASHES Transponder Net

ASHES and Southeast Caldera

98V103 4555.977 129 59.056 423694 5087067
ANCHOR 4555.923 129 58.741 424099.8 5086961.7
BLUEGOO 4556.725 129 58.985 423803.2 5088450.7
CASTLE 4555.568 129 58.794 424022.7 5086305.8
CIRCVENT 4555.555 129 58.899 423887 5086283
CLOUD 4556.001 129 58.894 423903.5 5087108.6
CONTAC10 4556.389 129 59.248 423455.7 5087832.8
CONTAC11 4556.505 129 58.917 423885.6 5088041.9
CONTAC12 4556.525 129 59.230 423482.1 5088085.7
CONTACT1 4555.622 129 58.790 424029.2 5086406.5
CONTACT2 4555.727 129 58.686 424166 5086599
CONTACT3 4556.700 129 59.025 423750.1 5088405
CONTACT4 4556.385 129 58.918 423881.8 5087820.2
CONTACT5 4555.961 129 59.224 423476.3 5087040.6
CONTACT6 4555.944 129 58.793 424033.5 5087002.2
CONTACT7 4556.162 129 58.834 423985.6 5087406.7
CONTACT8 4556.171 129 59.298 423385.3 5087430.2
CONTACT9 4556.322 129 59.314 423368.5 5087711.1
CRACK 4555.998 130 .813 421424 5087135
DAVES 4556.011 130 .826 421408.3 5087158.6
DYING 4555.011 129 59.511 423083.7 5085286.4
EASY 4556.720 129 59.083 423676.5 5088443.2
Fe-HYDE 4555.979 130 .827 421406 5087099.7
FISSURE 4556.698 129 59.082 423677.6 5088403.5
FLAG 4556.372 129 58.920 423879.1 5087796.4
FLATTOP 4555.566 129 58.787 424032.8 5086301.9
GOLLUM 4556.015 130 .815 421422 5087166.1
HAIRDO 4556.010 130 .839 421390.7 5087156.8
HELL 4555.998 130 .854 421372 5087135
HILLOCK 4555.997 130 .842 421387 5087132.7
HILPHNX 4555.995 130 .839 421390.9 5087130.4
INFERNO 4556.013 130 .834 421397.2 5087162.2
LARGETW 4556.359 129 58.915 423885.2 5087772.1
LIVEWRMS 4555.359 129 59.293 423374 5085927
MAGNESIA 4556.774 129 59.096 423660.7 5088544.7
MARSHMALLOW 4556.022 130 .817 421420.4 5087179
MEDUSA 4556.001 130 .836 421394.7 5087141.1
MILKY 4556.707 129 59.080 423679.4 5088419.7
MINISNOW 4556.557 129 59.053 423711 5088141
Mkr-1 4556.022 130 00.820 421416 5087180
Mkr-108 Vent 4555.719 129 58.982 423784 5086589
Mkr-113 Vent 4555.356 129 59.296 423370 5085922
Mkr-2 4555.998 130 00.838 421392 5087136
Mkr-21 4556.016 130 00.815 421422 5087168
Mkr-33 4555.996 129 58.935 423850.3 5087101.1
Mkr-D 4555.995 130 0.836 421399 5087129
Mkr-L 4556.000 130 00.859 421365 5087140
Mkr-N1 4556.388 129 59.045 423718 5087828
Mkr-N2 4556.707 129 59.082 423679.4 5088419.7
Mkr-N3 4556.628 129 59.112 423637 5088278
Mkr-N4 4556.002 129 58.906 423888 5087111
Mkr-N41 4556.173 129 58.883 423922.4 5087428.2
Mkr-N44 4556.368 129 59.090 423658 5087792
Mkr-N5 4555.627 129 51.047 434035 5086301
Mkr-N6 4556.002 129 58.896 423901 5087111
Mkr-N7 4556.358 129 58.914 423886 5087774
Mkr-N8 4555.992 129 58.914 423877 5087088
Mkr-N9 4556.556 129 59.054 423710 5088141
MUSHROOM 4556.016 130 .828 421405.3 5087167.9
NASCENT 4556.146 129 58.891 423911 5087378
NEWMOOR 4555.970 129 58.671 424191.2 5087047.5
OLDWORMS 4556.703 129 58.996 423788.8 5088410.1
OUZO 4556.749 129 59.081 423679.6 5088496.8
OXIDE 4556.727 129 59.105 423647.9 5088456.4
PILLARVENT 4555.362 129 59.125 423591 5085929.1
PIT 4556.385 129 59.045 423718 5087823
PORKCHOP 4555.999 130 0.853 421373 5087136
RAILROAD 4555.936 129 59.022 423737.3 5086990.7
REALROPE 4555.953 129 58.794 424032.4 5087018.6
ROOF 4556.550 129 59.069 423689.8 5088129.1
ROPOS 4555.997 130 .843 421386.1 5087134.1
RUMBLE 4555.814 129 59.038 423713 5086766
SLEDMOOR 4555.985 129 58.685 424173.1 5087075.8
SNAIL 4555.990 129 58.913 423878.6 5087089.7
SNOW 4555.627 129 58.947 423827 5086417
SNOWBLOWER 4556.392 129 59.044 423719 5087835
STEVEMOUND 4555.995 130 .805 421434.8 5087128.6
STRTEX 4556.504 129 59.070 423688 5088043
STYX 4555.997 130 .822 421412.2 5087132.2
SULFIDE 4555.570 129 58.796 424021 5086309
THEPIT 4556.385 129 59.045 423718.2 5087823.2
TOMBSTONE 4555.769 130 0.680 421590 5086597
TUNNICLIFF 4556.020 130 .949 421248.7 5087178
VIRGDAUT 4556.025 130 .804 421436 5087184
VIRGIN 4556.019 130 .809 421430 5087174
VSM1F 4556.188 129 59.001 423770.2 5087457.8
WHITE 4556.024 130 .818 421419 5087182.9
North Rift Zone Transponder Net
91VENT 46 2.316 130 0.745 421661.4 5098834.3
98 E1 46 1.156 130 1.059 421228 5096691
98 E2 46 1.181 130 1.215 421027.9 5096739.8
98 E3 46 1.188 130 1.283 420940 5096755
98 E4 46. 1.211 130 1.462 420710 5096800
BOB 46 2.335 130 0.770 421629.2 5098870.2
CLAMBED 46 2.331 130 0.801 421581.7 5098862.6
CLAMMAX 46 2.336 130 0.783 421612.9 5098871.7
RIFT1 46 1.177 130 1.228 421010.5 5096833.2
SHEPHERD 4559.394 130 1.601 420486.4 5093373.6
SOCASM 4559.322 130 1.575 420518.6 5093304.6
South Rift Zone Transponder Net
ANOM 4552.151 129 59.131 423509.6 5079985.2
CTD1 4555.205 129 59.030 423710.6 5085638.9
S CONTACT2 4552.142 130 0.464 421785.7 5079989.9
TOPLAVA 4552.188 129 59.298 423294.4 5080055.9

9.4 NeMO Observatory Instruments in Place September '98

-129.9842 45.9329 98V103 Mooring

-129.9830 45.9420 97T41 Mooring

-129.9870 45.9250 97T42 Mooring

-129.9821 45.9332 Temperature Probe

-129.9818 45.9334 Temperature Probe

-129.9882 45.9227 Temperature Probe

-129.9815 45.9360 Temperature Probe

-130.0136 45.9333 Temperature Probe

-130.0136 45.9336 Temperature Probe

-130.0135 45.9337 Temperature Probe

-130.0140 45.9336 Temperature Probe

-130.0263 45.9887 Temperature Probe

-129.9847 45.9451 Osmosampler

-129.9822 45.9332 Osmosampler

-129.9822 45.9332 Time Lapse Camera

-129.9834 45.9365 Rumbleometer Deployed 98

-130.0000 45.9567 Rumbleometer Recovered 98

-129.9840 45.9302 Rumbleometer Stuck in 98 Lava Flow

-129.9550 45.8850 OBS6

-130.2283 45.9067 OBS7

-130.1250 45.8500 OBS8

-129.9167 45.9333 OBS9

-129.8150 45.8950 OBS10

-130.0333 45.9467 OBS11

-130.1283 45.9517 OBS12

-130.0167 46.0167 OBS13

-130.0283 45.9833 OBS14

-129.9767 45.9767 OBS15

-129.9850 46.0750 OBS16

-129.9167 46.0300 OBS17

-130.0617 46.0500 OBS18

-130.9133 46.1200 OBS19

-130.1850 46.0667 OBS20

-129.8200 46.0267 OBS21

-130.0383 45.8917 OBS22

-129.9967 45.8183 OBS23

-130.0133 46.1283 OBS24

-129.9807 45.9452 OBH1

-129.9758 45.9400 OBH2

-129.9817 45.9408 OBH3

-129.9708 45.9417 OBH4

-129.9825 45.9363 OBH5


10.1 ROPOS Dive Locations and Dates

Dive # Date Location
R460 JD 240-241

Aug 28-29

SE Caldera SRZ:

Mkrs N3, 33; Milky, The Pit, Cloud Vents

R461 JD 241-243

Aug 29-31

SE Caldera SRZ:

Rumbleometer; Mkrs 108,33,113; Cloud, Sulfide, Castle, Circular Vents

R462 JD 243 - 244

Aug 31 - Sept 1

SE Caldera SRZ:

Mkr-33, Cloud Vent

R463 JD 244 - 245

Sept 1 - 2

SE Caldera SRZ:

Easy, Milky Vents; (+ Imagenex survey)

R464 JD 245

Sept 2

SE Caldera SRZ:

Oxide, MiniSnow, The Pit, Snail, Mkr-108, Mkr-113, Castle Vents

R465 JD 246

Sept 3

South Rift Zone:

reconnaissance survey

R466 JD 247

Sept 4


Hell, ROPOS, Hillock/Phoenix, Hairdo and Inferno Vents

R467 JD 248 - 249

Sept 5 - 6

North Rift Zone:

Extensometers; Bob Vent: (+Imagenex survey)

R468 JD 250

Sept 7


Gollum, Hell, ROPOS, Hillock/Phoenix, Crack Vents

R469 JD 250 - 251

Sept 7 - 8


Medusa, Mushroom, Marshmallow, Gollum, Daves Styx and Fe-Hyde Vents; (+Imagenex survey)

R470 JD 251

Sept 8

North Rift Zone:


R471 JD 252

Sept 9


Gollum, Mushroom, White, Inferno, Hell Vents

R472 JD 252

Sept 9


Steve Mound, Hell, Phoenix, Medusa, Inferno Vents

R473 JD 253 - 254

Sept 10 - 11

SE Caldera SRZ:

Easy, Milky, Roof, The Pit, Snowblower, Mkr-33, Mkr-108, Cloud, Castle Vents; (+Imagenex survey)

R474 JD 255

Sept 12

SE Caldera SRZ:

The Pit, Milky Vents; Rumbleometer; Lava Flow Mapping Traverses

R475 Dive aborted
R476 JD 256 - 257

Sept 13 - 14

SE Caldera SRZ:

Magnesia, Easy, Old Worms, Milky Vents;

Lava flow traverses; (+ Imagenex survey)

R477 JD 258

Sept 15

SE Caldera SRZ:

Rumbleometer; Mkr-33 Vent

R478 JD 258

Sept 15

SE Caldera SRZ:

Mkr-33, Mkr-n4, Cloud, Nascent Vents

R479 JD 259 - 260

Sept 16 - 17

Northern traverse along caldera wall:


Hell, Virgin, Mushroom, Medusa, Inferno Vents; (+Imagenex survey)

R480 JD 261 - 262

Sept 18 - 19

North Rift Zone and Northern Caldera Wall:

Extensometers; CASM (Shepherd?) Vent

10.2 NeMO'98 Markers/Experiments Deployed and Recovered

(also includes ALVIN 3245-3247 deployments)

Mkr-N2 Milky Vent R460
Mkr-N3 South of Milky Vent

North of The Pit

HOBO (borrowed from U. Washington) Near Cloud Vent and


Alvin dive 3247


Mkr-N6 Cloud Vent R460
Bacteria Traps


Mkr-33 Vent R461 R462 Retrieved #7,8

R477 Retrieved #5,6

MTR 4130 Mkr-33 Vent R461 Moved R478 Relocated at Mkr-33


MTR 0942 Cloud Vent R461
Mkr-N4 Cloud Vent R461
Bacteria Traps


Cloud Vent R461 R462
VEMCO Mkr-113 Vent Alvin dive 3245


Moved R461 Relocated to bottom of pillar (from top)

during Dive R461

Bacteria Traps


Mkr-113 Vent R461 R464 Retrieved #3 Bacteria Trap #4

Not retrieved

Mkr-N5 Castle Vent R461
osmosampler Mkr33 R462 R477 Had HOBO probe
Bacteria Traps


Mkr-33 R462 R477 Retrieved #10,11 Bacteria Traps

#9,12 Not retrieved

Bacteria Trap


Mkr-N4 R462 Bacteria Trap #14

Not retrieved

Bacteria Traps


Milky Vent


R463 R474 Retrieved #16,18
Bacteria Trap


Easy Vent R463 Bacteria Trap #17

Not retrieved

Mkr-N9 MiniSnow Vent R464
Mkr-N1 SnowBlower Vent R464
Mkr-N7 east of The Pit Vent R464
Mkr-N8 Snail Vent R464
Bacteria Traps


Mkr-113 Vent R464 Bacteria Traps


Not retrieved

Bacteria Traps


Castle Vent R464 Bacteria Traps


Not retrieved

HOBO Hell Vent (spire) R466 R479? Part of osmosampler package
osmosampler Hell Vent (spire) R466 R479
Bacteria Traps


Hillock/Phoenix Vent R466 Bacteria Traps


Not retrieved

Bacteria Traps


ROPOS Vent R466 Bacteria Traps


Not retrieved

Mkr-D east of Hillock/Phoenix Vent R468
MTR Gollum Vent R471
Bacteria Traps

#??? (3 traps)

Gollum Vent R471 Bacteria Traps

#??? Not retrieved

Bacteria trap

#? (1 trap)

Mushroom Vent R471 Bacteria Trap

#? Not retrieved

Mkr-1 White Vent R471
Mkr-N41 south of The Pit Vent

north of rumbleometer

MTR 4126 Mkr-N41 R474
Mkr-N44 west of The Pit Vent R474
osmosampler Mkr-N2 (Milky Vent) R474
Bacteria Trap


Mkr-N2 R476 Bacteria Trap #35

Not retrieved



Mkr-33 R477
Time-Lapse Camera


Mkr-33 R478
MTR 4108 Nascent Vent R478
VEMCO 98-1113-214 Shepherd Vent (CASM area) R480
HOBO 130 T&S Spires (CASM area) R480
HOBO 137 Inferno Vent (top) Alvin 3246
VEMCO 98-223 Inferno Vent (base)

diffuse flow area

Alvin 3246
HOBO 129 Virgin Mound Alvin 3246
VEMCO near Crack Vent Alvin 3246

10.3 Sample Types (Total and per Dive)

57 SUAVE scans 13 macrobiological samples 47 Suction Samples:

53 HFS samples 12 microbiological samples 19 microbiological

21 gastight bottles (microbial traps) 8 macrobiological

7 niskins 17 hard samples (geo) 9 macro&microbiological

2 misc.fluid samples 11 fluid

R460 R461 R462

4 SUAVE 18 SUAVE 4 micro (bactraps)

2 geo 2 gastights 1 micro (bag creature)

2 fluid 2 macro 1 niskin

3 geo 2 gastights

1 geo

6 suction samples


R463 R464 R465

1 gastight 1 micro (bactrap) 2 geo

1 suction sample (fluid) 2 macro

1 geo

1 niskin

2 gastights

8 suction samples


R466 R467 R468

21 SUAVE 1 geo 7 HFS

2 macro 2 SUAVE 1 SUAVE

2 gastights 1 micro&macro 1 niskin

1 niskin 1 geo

R469 R471 R472

16 HFS 2 macro 1 macro

1 SUAVE 2 gastights 1macro&geo

1 gastight 1 niskin 1 gastight

1 geo 3 suction samples 1 niskin

(2-fluid/1-micro&geo) 1 geo

8 suction samples


R473 R474 R475

18 HFS 2 micro (bactraps) No samples

2 gastights 1 macro

1 niskin 5 suction samples

1 geo (4-micro/1-micro&macro)

8 suction samples


R476 R477 R478

1 geo 4 micro (bactraps) 8 SUAVE

1 geo&micro 2 gastights

5 suction samples 5 suction samples

(3-micro/2-fluid) ` (1-micro/2-macro/1-micro&macro/1-fluid)

R479 R480


2 gastights 2 gastights

5 suction samples 2 geo

(1-micro/2-macro/1-micro&macro/1-fluid) 1 macro


Dive R460 SE Caldera, SRZ



R460-1 423648/5088456 SUAVE-1 Iron bacterial floc Massoth
R460-2 423682/5088425 SUAVE-2 Milky Vent at Mkr-N2 Massoth

423637/5088274 SUAVE-3 Vent at Mkr-N3 Massoth
R460-4 423615/5088226 Basalt glass J. Chapman
R460-5 423717/5087830 SUAVE-4 The Pit Vent Massoth
R460-6 423902/5087111 Basalt J. Chapman Scott: Chips with attached

bacteria in 3% gluteraldehyde

(for G. Ferris)

R460-7 Water from port Biobox Tsurumi
R460-8 Water from stbd Biobox Tsurumi

Dive R461 SE Caldera, SRZ

R461-1 423860/5087096 SUAVE -1 at Mkr-33 Vent site Massoth
R461-2 " SUAVE-2 at Mkr-33 Vent site Massoth
R461-3 " SUAVE -3 at Mkr-33 Vent site Massoth
R461-4 " Gas tight bottle #2 in venting crack at Mkr-33 Evans Geunther & Butterfield: compromised water samples

Lilley: half of gas ampoules


" Gas tight bottle #5 in venting crack at Mkr-33 Evans Geunther & Butterfield: compromised water samples

Lilley: half of gas ampoules

R461-6 " SUAVE -4 at GTB location Massoth

" SUAVE -5 at mat 30 cm from the bag creature Massoth
R461-8 " SUAVE -6 at bag creature Massoth
R461-9 " SUAVE -7 at little bag creature further from the sub than little bag creature Massoth
R461-10 423901/5087111 SUAVE -8 in cloud vent at Mkr-N6 Massoth
R461-11 423888/5087110 SUAVE-9 10 m west of Mkr-N6, at Mkr-N4 Massoth
R461-12 423783/5086590 SUAVE-10 at Mkr-108 Massoth
R461-13 423374/5085927 SUAVE-11 at Mkr-113, Axial Gardens, at top of pillar Massoth
R461-14 423374/5085927 SUAVE -12 at Mkr-113, where VEMCO was Massoth
R461-15 423374/5085927 Biosample, tube worms at Mkr-113 (where SUAVE #12 was), starboard side of biobox - a bit in port side Tunnicliffe
R461-16 423374/5085927 Rock sample at Mkr-113 - fell accidentally into biobox when tube worms sampled (R461-15) J. Chadwick Scott: chips of glass with biofilm for G. Ferris/



423374/5085927 SUAVE-13 at base of Mkr-113 lava pillar, place where Moyer's traps #3 & 4 deployed


R461-18 423382/5085916 SUAVE-14, Mkr-113 Massoth
R461-19 " Sample of dying tube worms at Mkr-113, kept in Pacman until surface Tsurumi
R461-20 423887/5086283 SUAVE-15 - Circular Vent Massoth
R461-21 424026/5086305 SUAVE-16 - at base of Sulfide Vent Massoth
R461-22 424030/5086304 SUAVE-17 - in tubeworms at sulphide deposit Massoth
R461-23 424048/5086303 SUAVE-18 - in tubeworms at Castle Vent Massoth
R461-24 424033/5086409 Older lava sample from "contact" point (#1), in port side of biobox J. Chadwick Scott: scrapings and

chips of glass with

biofilm for G. Ferris


no fixes but nearby R461-24 Younger lava sample from "contact" point (#1), in port side of biobox J. Chadwick

Dive R462 SE Caldera, SRZ

R462-1 423858/5087102 Suction Sampler, Bottle #1, fluid from Mkr-33 Butterfield Huber and Kaye
R462-2 " Suction Sampler, Bottle #7, mat and worms from Mkr-33 Juniper/



" Suction Sampler, Bottle #6, mat and worms from Mkr-33 Juniper/


R462-4 " Suction Sampler, Bottle #5, white mat and polynoids Juniper Í

" ATTEMPTED Suction Sampler, Bottle #4, white mat and "bag creature" Juniper
R462-6 423852/5087098 ATTEMPTED suction sampler, bottle #3, white mat NEAR bag creature Juniper
R462-7 " Bacteria trap #7 from Mkr-33 to port bio box. Trap was deployed for 48 hours. Moyer Í
R462-8 " Bacteria trap #8 to Mkr-33 port bio box. Trap was deployed for 48 hours. Moyer Í
R462-9 423852/5087098 Bag creatures sampled with pac man, most of them floated off and did not end up in the bio box, but some small pieces may still be there.
R462-10 423897/5087117 Bacteria trap sample #2 from Cloud Vent, Mkr-N4, down in hole with gray smoke. Trap was in vent for 48 hours. Moyer Í
R462-11 " Bacteria trap sample #1 from Cloud Vent, Mkr-N4, down in hole with gray smoke. Trap was in vent for 48 hours. Moyer Í
R462-12 423899/5087110 Niskin bottle at Cloud Vent, Mkr-N6, in area of super high gray smokey flow. Kaye /Huber



R462-13 " Gas tight bottle #2 filled with fluid from high flow at Mkr-N6. Evans
R462-14 " Gas tight bottle #7 filled with fluid from high flow at Mkr-N6 Evans
R462-15 423890/5087111 Basalt sample from Cloud Vent, Mkr-N4 J. Chadwick

Dive R463 SE Caldera, SRZ

R463-1 423678/5088420 Milk vent, Gas tight sample taken in bottle #6 on stbd arm Evans
R463-2 423678/5088420 Milk vent, Suction sample of water, into bottle #8 Butterfield/


Dive R464 SE Caldera, SRZ

R464-1 423628/5088455 Suction sample, small bottle #4, at Oxide Vent??- orange and white material Moyer/Juniper Í
R464-2 423706/5088143 Suction sample, large bottle #18, at Mini Snow, Mkr-N9 -diffuse flow with white flocs Butterfield/




423706/5088143 Suction sample, small bottle #1, at Mini Snow, Mkr-N9 - white bacterial mat Moyer/Juniper Í
R464-4 423722/5087835 Suction sample, large bottle #12, at Snow Blower Vent near Mkr-N1 - diffuse flow with white flocs Butterfield/



Gendron Í

423722/5087835 Suction sample, small bottle #2A, at Snow Blower Vent near Mkr-N1- white flocs Juniper/Moyer Í
R464-6 423878/5087086 Suction sample, small bottle #0, at Snail- snails and bacterial mat Juniper
R464-7 423784/5086592 Suction sample, small bottle #2B, at Mkr-108 - scale worms and bacterial mat, aborted - NO SAMPLE
R464-8 423373/5085933 Bacteria trap#3 at Mkr-113, in starboard side of biobox Moyer Í
R464-9 423377/5085935 dead or dying tube worms, Mkr-113 area into port bio box Tsurumi
R464-10 424032/5086297 base of Castle Vent spire Scott Kaye,/

Moyer Í


424032/5086297 Niskin sample of seawater adjacent to buoyant plume above Castle Vent spire McLaughlin-West/Kaye/




424032/5086297 2 gas tights, one in fluid from the decapitated base of Castle Vent, (port, GTB #5) one in seawater about 17" away (stbd, GTB#2) Evans
R464-13 424032/5086297 Suction sample, large canister #1 Butterfield/



424041/5086304 Biosample, tube worm grab with claw from Flat Top

at Mkr-N5


Dive R465 SRZ Reconnaissance Survey

R465-1 4552.16'


basalt, wedge/trapezoid shape, orange stripe inner surface, step in side, port biobox J.Chadwick/

M. Perfit




flow structure, in port biobox, long, bonelike, glass, yellow stuff J. Chadwick/

Mike Perfit

.Dive R466 ASHES

R466-1 421373/5087130 Sulfide worms and sulfide from top of spire at Hell Vent. Juniper Kaye
R466-2 421367/5087140 SUAVE #1 at top of clump of tube worms 1 m north of Hell Vent. Massoth/



421367/5087140 Entire clump of tube worms and associated biota at Hell Vent. Tunnicliffe/ Marcus Kaye/


R466-4 421367/5087140 SUAVE #2 scan of hole left by sampling tube worm bush Massoth

421393/5087132 SUAVE #3 at Phoenix Vent where glass wool traps were deployed. Massoth/



421386/5087134 SUAVE #4 ROPOS Vent where glass wool traps were deployed. Massoth/



421391/5087156 SUAVE #5 in worms at the top of Hairdo Vent. Massoth/



421391/5087156 Biosample of a clump of worms at Hairdo Vent. Tunnicliffe/





421391/5087156 SUAVE #6 at base of Hairdo Vent after the clump of organisms were removed. Massoth/



421389/5087137 SUAVE #7 at the base of Phoenix below the worms. Site #1. Massoth/



421389/5087137 SUAVE #8 at the base of Phoenix on sulfide worms. Site #1. Massoth/



421389/5087137 SUAVE #9 slightly higher up on the same piece of sulfide as above. Site #1. Massoth/



421389/5087137 SUAVE #10 at the base of Phoenix on sulfide worms. Site #1. Massoth/



421388/5087135 SUAVE #11 at base of Phoenix. In area of no fauna. Site #2. Massoth/



421388/5087135 SUAVE #12. On two sulfide worms at base of Phoenix. Site #2. Massoth/



421388/5087135 SUAVE #13 of sulfide worms at base of Phoenix. Site #3. Massoth/



421388/5087135 SUAVE #14. Same. Massoth/


R466-18 421388/5087135 SUAVE #15. Same. Massoth/



421388/5087135 SUAVE #16. Same. Aborted midway through because of power failure to ROPOS. Massoth/



Bad fix SUAVE #17 at Inferno Vent. Massoth/



Bad fix Gas Tight #6 at Inferno Vent at top of black beehive spire on south side, hdg 350, near VEMCO. Lupton/



421395/5087162 Gas Tight #7 at Inferno Vent at top of black beehive spire on south side, hdg 350, near VEMCO. Lupton/



421373/5087136 SUAVE #18 at Hell Vent of sulfide worms. Massoth/



421373/5087136 SUAVE #19 at Hell at back of Porkchop near sulfide worms again. Massoth/



421373/5087136 SUAVE #20 at Hell at bone of Porkchop near sulfide and palm worms. Massoth/



421373/5087136 SUAVE #21 at Hell in group of palm worms. Massoth/


R466-27 421375/5087135 Niskin at Hell in buoyant plume at top of triple chimney, top of chimney at 1542 m. McLaughlin-West/




Dive R467 NRZ






1629 421330/5096637 Old basalts for dating from elevator drop site. J.Chadwick/

M. Perfit


0357 421602/5098870 SUAVE-1 at vent with no visible flow. Some bacterial mats, a few scraggly tube worms, some gastropods. First vent we found. Massoth
R467-3 0500 421629/5098870 SUAVE #2 at low flow vent with orange and white bacterial mats, tube worms, lots of gastropods, and some polynoids. Considered to be the same as 91 Vent from Sonne cruise, now called "Bob Vent". Massoth/


R467-4 0517 421629/5098870 Biosample of mat, tube worms, bacteria at SUAVE #2 site - Bob Vent. Tunnicliffe/

J. Chadwick/

E Moyer


Dive R468 ASHES

R468-1 0252 421417/5087167 HFS-1 at Gollum 2 #10 piston Butterfield Kaye
R468-2 0334 421426/5087135 HFS-2 at Crack Vent piston #8 for gas Butterfield Evans
R468-3 0342 421426/5087135 SUAVE-1 at Crack Vent Massoth
R468-4 0344 421426/5087135 HFS-3 at Crack Vent. Filter #16 only. Huber
R468-5 0350 421426/5087135 GTB #7 (stbd side) T = 40C. Crack Vent Evans
R468-6 0401 421426/5087135 HFS-4 Bag sample #7. High-T sample.

No filter. Crack Vent

Butterfield Kaye
R468-7 0403 421426/5087135 GTB #6. T = 170C. At Crack Vent. Evans
R468-8 0405 421426/5087135 HFS-4 #12 piston sample. Crack Vent. Butterfield Kaye
R468-9 0414 421426/5087135 HFS-5 #13 piston sample. Crack Vent. Butterfield

0436 421397/5087127 HFS-6 Bag #3. Background water sample without filter between Hillock/Phoenix and Hell Vents. T = 2.5C Kaye/Huber
R468-11 0444 No fixes Niskin sample taken ~1 m above active Hell Vent in plume Gendron
R468-12 0458 No fixes Stump and base of active vent at ROPOS Jonnasson Scott

Dive R469 ASHES

R469-1 1831 421422/5087178 Fluid Sampler Piston #13, diffuse flow-aborted

Worked at later time Marshmallow Vent

Butterfield Kaye

1546 421422/5087178 SUAVE #1 at fluid sampler collection site

Marshmallow Vent


1836 421422/5087178 Fluid Sampler Piston #12, diffuse flow-aborted Marshmallow Vent Butterfield Kaye
R469-4 1849 421422/5087178 Fluid sampler Bag #7, diffuse flow, Marshmallow Vent Butterfield Kaye
R469-5 1900 421422/5087178 Fluid sampler #16 Filters only, diffuse flow, Marshmallow Vent Huber
R469-6 1546 421422/5087178 Starboard gas tight bottle #5, diffuse flow

Marshmallow Vent

R469-7 1546 421404/5087167 Fluid sampler #11, Bubbler #2 diffuse flow, W face of Mushroom Vent Butterfield Kaye

2132 421404/5087167 Fluid Sampler #17, filter set, Bubbler #2 diffuse flow, W face of Mushroom Huber
R469-9 2232 421427/5087165 Fluid Sampler Bag #6 (filtered) at Gollum Vent in the worms. Butterfield
R469-10 2245 421427/5087165 Fluid Sampler #18 Filter set, Gollum Vent Huber
R469-11 2254 421427/5087165 Fluid Sampler #9, Gas piston, T1 = 7 Gollum Vent Evans
R469-12 2352 421412/5087132 Fluid sampler bag #2 at Styx Vent Butterfield
R469-13 JD251 0000 421412/5087132 Fluid piston sampler #10 at Styx Vent Butterfield Kaye
R469-14 0013 421412/5087132 Port side gas tight at Styx Vent Evans
R469-15 0033 421409/5087159 Fluid sample bag # 23 at Daves Vent Butterfield
R469-16 0048 421409/5087159 Fluid sample bag # 24 at Daves Vent Butterfield
R469-17 0051 421409/5087159 Fluid sample bag #3 at Daves Vent Butterfield Kaye
R469-18 0115 421394/5087141 Fluid sample bag #4 at Medusa Vent Butterfield
R469-19 0132 421394/5087141 Fluid sample bag#5 at Medusa Vent Butterfield
R469-20 0155 421406/5087100 Iron oxyhydroxide from Fe-Hyde site on the south fringe of ASHES Juniper/


Dive R470 No Samples

Dive R471 ASHES

R471-1 0258 421422/5087168 Suction sample of water from Gollum into jar #1 Juniper Juniper
R471-2 0318


Suction sample of water from Gollum into jar #2 Juniper Juniper

0359 " Tube worm clump from Gollum into port side of biobox Tsurumi/





0456 421420/5087166 Suction sample of white mat on rock ~1 m from trap deployment into jar #8. Also chips of basalt glass. Moyer J. Chadwick/



0616 421402/5087168 Gastight sampler # 6 Mushroom Vent Evans M. Lilley/

D. Butterfield


0616 421416/5087180 Tube worms at mkr I ~1 m west of

White Vent




0650 421395/5087163 Gastight sampler #7 Inferno Vent Evans M.Lilley/

D. Butterfield

R471-8 0733 421376/5087146 Niskin sample on port side about 5 m above Hell Vent Gendron D. Butterfield

Dive R472 ASHES

R472-1 1349 421395/5087142 Suction Sample Jar #1; particulate organic matter Juniper Juniper
R472-2 1411 421395/5087142 Suction Sample Jar #2; sulfide worms Juniper Juniper
R472-3 1424 421397/5087141 Using pacman to grab rock and animal sample Port side of bio box Tunnicliffe Juniper/Kaye/

J. Chadwick


1451 421395/5087165 Suction Sample Jar #3; sulfide worms at base of Inferno Vent Juniper Tunnicliffe/



1517 421374/5087135 Suction Sampler Jar #4; sulfide worms at southwest base of Hell Vent Juniper Juniper/Kaye
R472-6 1606 421374/5087138 Worms and flange from Hell into starboard biobox Juniper Tunnicliffe/





1636 421390/5087134 Suction Sample Jar #5; sulfide worms at Phoenix Vent Juniper Tunnicliffe/



1652 421382/5087135 Suction Sample Jar #6; background seawater near Phoenix Vent, about 1 m off floor Kaye/Huber
R472-9 1707 421373/5087138 Suction Sample Jar #7; diffuse flow from clump of tube worms just north of Hell Vent Kaye/Huber Butterfield
R472-10 1732 421373/5087138 Gas tight bottle #5; starboard side at same site for suction Evans M. Lilley/



1759 421375/5087130 Pacman grab of iron oxide mound at Steve Mound, near Crack Vent Scott
R472-12 1857 421421/508714 Suction Sampler #8; orange yellow mat; oxide mounds just south of Gollum (202 Nytex) Moyer Scott
R472-13 1948 421371/5087133 5 liter, right side Niskin bottle meters above Hell Vent Gendron/



Dive R473 SE Caldera SRZ

R473-1 1805 423679/5088458 Fluid Sample at Easy Vent; Bag #2 with filter Butterfield filter lost during dive
R473-2 1815 "/" Fluid Sample at Easy Vent; Filter #1 Sterivex filter only Moyer
R473-3 1841 "/" Fluid Sample at Easy Vent; Piston #10 Butterfield McLaughlin/




1900 "/" Fluid Sample at Easy Vent; Filter Set #16 (3 Ám and .22 Ám Sterivex) Huber
R473-5 1912 "/" Fluid Sample at Easy Vent; Gas Piston #8 Butterfield/





1932 423674/5088454 Suction Sample at Easy Vent; Jar #6 with 64 Ám mesh; polynoids and white mat Tunnicliffe/




2026 423686/5088421 Suction Sample at Milky Vent; Jar #1 with 20 Ám mesh; white bacterial mat Moyer
R473-8 2153 423677/5088120 Fluid Sample at Roof Vent; Bag #4 with filter Butterfield Guenther

filter B4 to Gendron


2201 "/" Gas tight bottle #6 at Roof Vent Evans M.Lilley/



2203 "/" Fluid Sample at Roof Vent; Bag #3 without filter Butterfield/



2340 423718,5087823 Suction sample of floc from Snowblower Vent (at the Pit), into bottle #5 Moyer
R473-12 0001 423718/5087823 Fluid Sample; Snowblower Vent; Bag #5 with filter, ~700ml Butterfield McLaughlin/


filter B3 to Gendron


0256 423852/5087097 HFS sample at Mkr 33, piston #11 at


Butterfield McLaughlin/


R473-14 0317 " HFS filter sample set #17 at Mkr-33 Huber

0345? " HFS filtered water sample at same place as -14

bag 24

Butterfield filter lost

during dive


0429 423851/5087104 Suction sample of bag creatures and white mat ~1 m NE from -13 to -15; bottle #18 Juniper Juniper
R473-17 0448 423854/5087099 White mat from within the Mkr-33 Vent with the suction sampler Moyer

R473-18 0513 " Suction sample of scale worms and polychaetes at Mkr-33 Vent ; bottle #7 Marcus Juniper
R473-19 0627 423903/5087108 HFS water sample at Cloud Vent (Mkr-N4)

bag sample with a filter, number 23

Butterfield McLaughlin/

filter B7 to Gendron

R473-20 0633 423903/5087108 Suction Sample at Cloud Vent, jar 4 Moyer

0755 423786/5086590 Suction Sample at Marker-108 jar 8

bio worms





0840 423786/5086593 HFS samples at Marker-108

Piston 12 ~12 degrees C

Butterfield McLaughlin/


R473-23 0855 " HFS bag with filter #6, Mkr-108 Butterfield filter lost

1038 424022/5086306 HFS sampler, Piston sample #13 at about 260 at Castle Vent Butterfield Huber/Kaye
R473-25 1050 " HFS sampler, Gas Piston Sample #9 at same site Butterfield Evans/Lilley



1053 " HFS sampler, Bag Sample #7, same place Butterfield Huber/Kaye/


R473-27 1100 " HFS sampler, Filter #18, same place Huber

1129 " Niskin, 1518, about 3 meters above Gendron Roe/


R473-29 1131 " Mature sulfide spire, in Pacman claw Scott Kaye
R473-30 0311 423852/5087097 Gas tight bottle sample taken at Mkr-33

(note: sample number not in time order)


Dive R474 SE Caldera SRZ

R474-1 0823 423703/5087066 Slurp Bottle #5, shit trails, some yellow mat Juniper No




R474-2 0933 424177/5087075 Slurp Jar #3, background sediment Juniper

1111 423922/5087428 Slurp jar #7, new baby tube worms and mat near Mkr-N41. Stopped and flushed tube worms out of sample tube into the flushing jar. Returned to jar #7 and sample some mat Juniper/



1234 423659/5087792 Slurp jar #4. Slurping 10-12 cm patch of yellow/orange mat. West-southwest (50-60 meters) of Pit. Hdg 075.

Deploying Mkr-N44.

R474-5 1320 423837/5088089 Slurping into jar #8. Slurping red material on new lava. Juniper

1435 423682/5088431 Found Moyer's glass trap #16. Placing it in starboard side of the biobox Moyer
R474-7 1515 423679/5088420 Recovered glass trap #18. Placing it in starboard side of the biobox Moyer
R474-8 1435-1515 423679/5088420 Polynoid (1) that swam into port side biobox, Mkr-N2 Marcus

Dive R475 Aborted

Dive R476 SE Caldera SRZ

R476-1 1537 423678/5088411 White bacterial mat; suction sampling in jar # 5; close to Milky Vent Juniper
R476-2 1553 423678/5088411 Rock sample from Milky Vent; 7-function arm; in port side of biobox
R476-3 1628 423785/5088416 Old tube worms with extensive filamentous bacteria growing on the tubes; into starboard side of biobox; at Old Worm, Hdg 111 Tsurumi/



1638 423785/5088416 Low flow water sample at Old Worms; suction sampler (jar # 4); Hdg 108. Slurping at low speed for 6 min. Butterfield Huber/Kaye/




1703 423670/5088477 Flat piece of mat-covered basalt, north of Milky/Easy Vents; sampled with 7-function arm into port side of biobox; Hdg 342
R476-6 1717 423670/5088477 Suction sample of orange mat; in jar # 6; slurped for 13 min; North of Milky/Easy Vents; Hdg 342 Moyer Juniper
R476-7 1810 423661/5088545 Suction sample of water at Magnesia Vent; slowly pumping into sample jar # 3 Butterfield Huber/Kaye/




1817 423661/5088545 Gas tight sample at Magnesia Vent; bottle #5, port side; Hdg 255 Evans M. Lilley/









Fauna from flushing bottle from suction sampler


Dive R477 SE Caldera SRZ

R477-1 0514 423853,5087097 Bacteria trap #10 at Mkr-33 Moyer no sub-



R477-2 " " Bacteria trap #11 at Mkr-33 Moyer
R477-3 " " Bacteria trap #5 at Mkr-33 Moyer
R477-4 " " Bacteria trap #6 at Mkr-33 Moyer
R477-5 0544 " OSMO sampler (short term) Wheat

Dive R478 SE Caldera SRZ

R478-1 1627 423856/5087095 SUAVE #1 at Mkr-33 near MTR Massoth no sub-



R478-2 1659 423852/5087095 SUAVE #2 at Mkr-33 near osmosampler Massoth
R478-3 1710 423852/5087095 Starboard gas tight bottle #6 Evans
R478-4 1736 423836/5087092 SUAVE #3 southwest of Mkr-33 at crack Massoth
R478-5 1813 423901/5087115 SUAVE #4 at edge of Cloud Vent Massoth
R478-6 1917 423910/5087380 SUAVE #5 at tube worm clump, Nascent Massoth
R478-7 1923 423910/5087380 Gastight bottle #2 (port) tripped at\ Nascent Vent Evans

1942 423910/5087380 Tube worm grab to starboard side bio box at Nascnt Vent Tunnicliffe
R478-9 2009 423913/5087406 SUAVE #6 at Mkr-N41 where tube worms were collected Massoth
R478-10 2036 423897/5087455 SUAVE #7 at hole next to old tube worm clump just North of Mkr-N41 Massoth
R478-11 2052 423897/5087455 Tube worm grab to port bio box Tunnicliffe
R478-12 2149 423890/5087771 SUAVE #8 at big tube worm site max T = 16C Massoth
R478-13 2209 423890/5087771 Tube worm grab where SUAVE #8 was, in port claw, will stay there for the ride up Tunnicliffe

Dive R479 Traverse north along caldera wall to ASHES

R479-1 0838 421634/5086592 Suction Sampler jar 18 of iron oxide little chimneys with white bacterial mat Scott/



0928 421590/5086597 HFS Bag sample #7 with a filter, Tave = ~19 deg C at intake, south of ASHES Butterfield Guenther/




1131 421373/5087132 Piston #10, Tmax =26 deg C, at Porkchop

1139 Probe tip drifted out of hot fluid.

1142 Replaced in hot water new Tmax = 51 deg C.

Butterfield Kaye/Huber/




1150 "/" Filter #16, Porkchop, same place as above, Tave=30 C, about 1L, 8cycles Huber
R479-5 1202 "/" Sample Bag/Filter combo #6, Porkchop, same location as above, Tave =?C, temp varying greatly Butterfield Gendron/



1305 421368/5087137 Piston #13, Top of Hell, max T 270, 42 on the back probe. Sample fluid smoking out of red chalcopyrite. Sample appears to be cloudy. Butterfield Kaye/ Huber/




1315 "/" Filter #17, Hell , same place as above, Tmax = 270 C, about 400mL, 3 cycles. At 1353, filtered an additional 100mL (one cycle) Huber
R479-8 1340 "/" Sample Bag/Filter combo #23, Hell Vent, another chimney, hdg 085, Tmax = 294 C, T2 58C, Butterfield Kaye/ Hubert/




1340 "/" Gastight sample, portside GTB #5, Hell, same location at R479-8, Tmax = 293 deg C, same location at R479-8 Evans M.Lilley/



1439 421393/5087163 Piston #11, Inferno, Hdg 246, near top, facing SW Tmax = 291 deg, 22 on the back probe (T2). Butterfield Kaye/ Huber/




1542 421432/5087175 Gas tight bottle, starboard side GTB #7 at Virgin; Max T 258 C Evans M.Lilley/



1542 "/" Piston #12 at Virgin; Max T 261 C Butterfield
R479-13 1613 variable Filter Set # 18; background seawater in ASHES Huber
R479-14 1631 421403/5087167 Bag #4 with filter; at Mushroom; Max T 179C Butterfield Gendron/




1707 421394/5087138 Suction Sample Bottle #4 at Medusa; Diffuse flow from rock Kaye/Huber/



1723 "/" Suction Sample Bottle #2 of sulfide and palm worms and mat at Medusa; and begin suctioning bottle #7 at Medusa Juniper Kaye
R479-17 1808 421375/5087135 Suction Sample Bottles #3 of sulfide worms at Porkchop of Hell Juniper Tunnicliffe
R479-18 1908 421267/5087140 Suction Sample Bottle #7 and bottle no # (flushing bottle) of clams near Caldera Wall=FAILED SAMPLE Tunnicliffe
R479-19 1943 421257/5087167 Suction Sample Bottle #1 near Caldera Wall; diffuse flow in crevice Kaye/Huber/








Mr. Potatohead. Cooked at Hell Vent first, then cooked some more at Virgin Vent. umm Tunnicliffe

Dive R480 NRZ and CASM

R480-1 0603 At CASM:

no nav

SUAVE #1 at base of large sulfide chimney in CASM fissure Massoth

0603 " Gas tight- port side #2 same place as SUAVE Evans/





0628 " Grab of active chimney on top of T & S Spires. Several small pieces. Scott Juniper/



0703 " Chimney - not active. Huge piece that almost filled the port side of the biobox Scott Juniper/



0729 " SUAVE of the tube worms at T&S Spires Massoth
R480-6 0732 " Gas Tight #6 on the starboard side Evans M.Lilley/



0739 " Tube worms Tunnicliffe Scott: rock/


10.5 Dive Map Nomenclature

The dive maps depict all Vents and Markers visited, samples collected on each dive, in addition all instruments deployed and recovered are also cited.

V = Vent M = Marker

Nomenclature Example: S/ss12_dfl-4

The first letter could be:

S Sample

D Deploy

R Recover

The letters (possibly followed by a number) following the backslash indicate the sample type:

ss12 indicates that it was suction sample in bottle #12.

The letters following the underscore give more information about the sample:

_dlf indicates that the sample was diffuse flow.

The number following the hyphen designates the dive sample number.

-4 indicates that it was sample number 4 for the dive.

Sample type abbreviations:

ss Suction Sample


hfs Hot Fluid Sampler

niskin Niskin bottle

gtb Gas Tight Bottle

bactrp Bacteria Trap

More sample information:

mat bacterial mat

dfl diffuse flow

flc bacterial floc

bio biological sample

sf sulfide

rck rock

FeO iron oxide

osmo osmo sampler/analyzer

hobo temperature probe (152 - 419C)

MTR temperature probe (2 - 34C)

VEMCO temperature probe (0 - 50C)

TLC time lapse camera

10.6 ROPOS DIVE LOGS, Dives R460 - R480

Dive R460

Dive Map

Dive Summary:

Dive R460 conducted a reconnaissance along the southeastern side of the caldera at Axial Seamount taking SUAVE scans and samples as appropriate and conducting mapping surveys with the Imagenex sonar and digital still camera. ROPOS passed through a particulate plume on descent and landed near a low temperature vent. Such vents, harboring bacterial mat, scale worms, palm worms and other organisms, occur intermittently along one or more lines of narrow fissures. Low viscosity basalt flows predominate: lava forms include several styles of sheet flows (smoothy, ropey, curtain drape), less abundant lobate and relatively minor pillow flows. Drained lava lakes, some with a partially intact roof and basalt pillars are common. No hydrothermal chimneys or mounds were seen but yellow sediment and popcorn size balls of floc, probably fallout from plumes, are wide-spread.

Three vent sites were worked (Milk Vent, The Pit and Cloud Vent), although SUAVE was disabled at The Pit when the 7 function arm to which the sensor was attached went berserk. The Imagenex survey was run along four N-S lines south of the Mkr-33 and Cloud Vent sites. The digital still camera survey was run in the vicinity of Mkr-33. A mooring and "rumbleometer" (seismometers with current meter) were looked for but not found. Basalt glass, one with bacteria attached, was sampled at two sites.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)

Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

Southeast side of caldera

Date (PDT):

August 27, 1998

Date (UTM):

August 28, 1998

Julian Day 240

Time off deck:

(1) 0334 aborted

(2) 0440

Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

August 29, 1998

Date (UTM):

August 29, 1998

Julian Day 241

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

27 hr 03 min

Total bottom time:

24 hr 32 min

Reconnaissance survey of ~5 km along the east side of the caldera in the vicinity of known hydrothermal vents.

Test of digital still camera with onboard Jazz drive recorder

Test of Imagenex scanning sonar mapper

SUAVE analyses of vents

Deploy markers

Look for moorings deployed 1997

Sampling as appropriate

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port of center line of sub)

BioBox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper

Markers in BioBox. Top to bottom: Port N3, N2, N1, D; Stbd N6, N5, N4, G

SUAVE mounted port side interior; sensor on starboard (7 function) arm

Low temperature Vemcos in BioBox

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm









Comments Frame grab, photos and samples
0334 423631 5088521 ROPOS off deck and into the water. There are 21 observers in the lab.
0343 ROPOS too heavy -- returning to surface
0354 ROPOS back on deck to add syntactic foam
0440 423635 5088504 ROPOS back in the water
0556 Recording video in plume detected by light attenuation on SUAVE
0607 1520 Bottom sighted (basalt pillar) through heavy floc
0620 1517 423620 5088519 ROPOS 10 meters above
0621 1524 Lobate flow, dense floc
0624 1524 Basalt pillar in lava lake; lobate lava; appears old
0625 1524 423628 5088457 Sheet flow, 10% sediment cover
0628 1524 Sheet flow with floc Photo-1
0632 1526 Bacteria patches on basalt
0633 423650 5088449
0634 1529 Lobate flow, drained depressions, yellow bacteria
0638 1531 423636 5088449 Sheet flow, Hdg 180
0639 1532 Sheet flow Photo-2
0640 1533 423640 5088433 Sheet lava FG R460-001


0645 1529 Yellow iron-rich bacterial sediment covering talus; slight T anomaly; Hdg 181 (missed Photo-4) FG R460-002


0648 1530 Ditto; ROPOS not moving Photo-6
0650 1530 423652 5088408
0655 1530 Ditto

Frame grab 3 is no good

FG R460-003

FG R460-004

FG R460-005


0659 1530 Ditto FG R460-007
0700 SUAVE


0708 1530 SUAVE tip in yellow fluff. About 2 to 3 ÁM Fe. Some H2S. T = 2.6C (anomaly of 0.1) FG


0713 423648 5088456 Ended SUAVE

(camera counter 15) site where we used the SUAVE

0717 Started to move. wide angle of lots of mat. moving to the east and then will cross back to the west FG R460-009
0721 1529 423642 5088419 Moving east. some mat. more floc in the water, more white mat
0724 1532 423682 5088425 White smoke from a diffuse vent. polynoids = scale worm -- lots of them (tens), lots of white floc coming out of vent, T anomaly of 0.5C

Photo (#16 on counter) = some yellow mat, T anomaly of 2.5C

FG R460-010



0729 1532 423683 5088425 Hanging out trying to get the SUAVE into the flow. Water coming out of a hole with a diameter of 0.5 m
0733 1532 423682 5088425 Conducting a SUAVE measurement in the hole that is spewing bacteria. MILKY VENT

H2S 175 ÁM, Mn 10 ÁM, Fe >100 ÁM, T anomaly of 5.5C



0740 1531 423684 5088425 Milky Vent, Scanner done Photo 9
Mistake FGR460-012
0754 1532 423682 5088425 Deploying Mkr-N2 (marker is a triangle with black letters and #). Deployed at 0758

Photo of the marker(#18 on counter).

FG R460-012

FG R460-013


0802 Moving looking around the area, Polynoids (photo #19 on counter), lots of white material around the rocks ( a potential source of floc?) polynoid swam by the camera, (0805) colonial ciliate (protozoan)? Photo-11
0806 1528 Leaving general area heading to the east to resume our transect. ropy sheet flow with some sediment cover
0808 1528 423691 5088423 Heading to the east (saw a fish), ground
0811 Heading SW. first real pillow lavas (0813)
0814 1529 423682 5088373 Heading west, broken slabs, shallow lava lake?, sheet flows, ropy sheet flows
0818 1529 423634 5088365 Sheet flows with ropy texture, brittle flows with lots of broken chunks
0822 1529 4235 5088360 Starting to head towards the N Sonne site, ship is moving. we are going to move E with the ROV. ship is moving to the south. ropy lava, whirls of basalt
0826 1528 423612 5088394 Ropy broken up lava , pillow lavas some of which are hollow. Moving due south. lava flow with a cave below.
0833 1528 423658 5088336 heading east to begin east -west hunt for North Sonne. sheet flows, rattail and crab. Photo is #20 on counter. Photo-12
0835 1528 423679 5088348 heading south, ropy sheet flows, linear features
0840 1527 moving to the west. Photo is #21 on counter, crab, area of hydrothermal sediment (yellow and orange in color) Photo-13
0844 1527 423666 5088322 Photo is #22 on counter. basaltic spire maybe 1 m high, pillow lavas with yellow material in cracks, bacterial mats around pillows, small vents (0846), Photo 14
0851 1532 423565 5088303 Heading E, bacterial mats around pillow flows. shimmering water, polynoids (6)
0902 1528 423637 5088275 Photo -14 (#23 on counter) is hole with water venting out

Photo -15 (#24 on counter) is of water coming out of holes in and around pillows.

SUAVE #3 Mn/heat = 1.8, T anomaly 1C,

Photo -16 (#25 on counter) at diffuse vent site. turned on highlight tape

FG R460-015

FG R460-016

FG R460-017




0912 1528 423640 5088279 SUAVE in a hole, SUAVE problems, High temperature at 9.5C when we lost communication. Recycled power. SUAVE


FG R460-018

0915 1528 423638 5088297 Stopped highlight tape

SUAVE max at 13.5C, Mn 40 Ám, H2S 200 Ám, Fe 40 m, ave temp of 11.5C, polynoid


FG R460-020

(at 0919)

0920 1528 423637 5088274 Ended SUAVE, more polynoids (tens), frame grab of the hole that was SUAVE'd, polynoids are coming out of the hole with large flocs of bacteria, FGR460-021

FG R460-022

Photo 26

0929 1528 423637 5088278 Deploying Mkr-N3 triangle marker with black letters and numbers FG R460-023

FG R460-024


0932 1528 423637 5088278 Leaving site FGR460-025
0934 Moving south, drained lava lake, spotty areas of bacterial mat
0940 1526 423657 5088251
0948 1525 Ship moving 100 m to the south, ROV moving, bacterial mats (white) FGR460-026


0955 1525 423608 5088237 Lots of white mat, lots of floc, glassy basalt , polynoid FGR460-027



1004 1529 423615 5088226 Picking up a rock , but only got some small pieces of glass. Not much sample. Put in port biobox. Frame grabs of actual site where sample was collected Basalt



FG R460-029

1015 1529 423613 5088231 Photo-31
1016 Good zoom images, furry polynoids cleaning the rock & eating bacteria, two different species of polynoids FG R460-030



1026 Heading south, more mats
1028 1527 423621 5088213 Lots of white mat between pillows that are covered with a yellow sediment
1034 1526 423634 5088192 Lava drain out of the white mats, yellow between rocks, looks like a younger lava that overlies an older one Photo-32
1037 Pillows, no mat
1039 1526 423609 5088199 Pillows with yellowish sediment
1046 1526 423621 5088179 Hdg 140, younger lava flow, pillows, lots of yellow sediment with some white floc., a skylight Photo-33


1052 1523 423656 5088153 Hdg 225, pillows
1101 1525 423616 5088114 Moving ship
1106 1525 423618 5088115 New ship position, ROPOS Hdg 133
1109 1522 Traversing SE, murky water, poor visibility, extensive sediment ponding, iron coloration Photo-35
1111 1523 423651 5088119 Sulphide mats, diffuse flow, white pockets, dense iron cover, Hdg 130, water venting, yellow/whitish mat, bright white spots
1114 1518 Lava lake, turning south Photo-36
1117 Hdg 188, sulfide rich area, white pockets, similar to the area that we saw to the north, a lot of mat and black glass material showing through
1120 1522 Driving along edges of lava shelf , glassy material.

skipped notes on Photo-37

1121 1518 423679 5088022 Lots of white mat between pillows
1123 1518 423697 5088018 South of target, not as dense as before, getting out of lava
1125 1520 423702 508811
1128 Lots of yellow material, white mat in lava cracks
1129 1517 423681 5088003 Hdg 176
1131 Spotty white mats, yellow material covering rocks
1132 Lots of yellow material cover
1135 Turning to head south west, Hdg 220
1138 1519 423707 5087932 White mat, slight amount, still transiting, starting to see sulfide mat
1140 Fissure
1142 1520 423699 5087912 Lots of white floc, change Hdg to 160
1144 Old age lava, spotty white mat, pillow lava
1146 Small amount of sulfide venting, now very flat, go back to try to follow venting, rattail fish
1150 Rattail fish, murky water. Photo-39
1153 1516 423794 5087819 Basalt pillars (~1.5 - 2 m), lava lake, moving west, Hdg 271
1154 1518 423723 5087820 Lava lake, pockets of white mat, sulfide rich water coming up, then sulfide rich area, polychaete worms
1156 Big pit, a lot of venting fluid coming out, one of the more intense areas Photo-40
1200 Putting arm into diffuse flow get temp
1201 Begin SUAVE scan #4: on edge of a 1m deep collapse pit reaching down over edge only a little way - seems like extensive flow in area and volume FG R460-043



1203 423811 5087824 SUAVE maximum T = 14C
1203 1520 423717 5087830 SUAVEing The Pit
1215 Starboard (7 function) arm out of control. Mkr-N1 fell out of claw onto seafloor before it was unfurled.
1243 Claw control!! Back to cage to try things.
1313 Finishing claw control - rotate function stuck and SUAVE cable broken; power down to immobilize hydraulics to arm.
1309 1519 423749 5087833 Resume survey of area, 7 function arm is disabled
1313 Yellow cover with patchy white material
1315 1520 423380 5087132 Pit, same as the one scanned?, shimmering water, yellow covering with white mat in cracks, Hdg175
1319 1519 Hdg 211, very murky lots of bright yellow material, flow FG R460-044


1321 1520 Point source emitting milky fluid. Photo-43
1323 1520 423718 5087794 Hdg 229, still very milky flow, continuing to south FG R460-045


1326 Rattail fish, out of flow, Hdg 184
1329 1520 423717 5087765 Much flatter terrain with yellow cover, Continuing south, coming to edge of structure
1331 1519 423727 5087747 Looking out to lava lake with lava pillars, spires a couple of meters deep
1333 1520 423769 5087713 Pillars in lava lake FG R460-046


1335 1520 Drips (stalactite) on underside of top of lava tube
1337 1520 423815 5087738 Hdg 128, turning to come southwest, ropy lavas covered with yellow material, some is collapsed roof lava FG R460-047


1342 Laminations on a lava pillar Photo-48
1345 Ropy lava covered with yellow material and white patches
1347 1522 423788 5087619 Waiting for nav
1409 1522 423723 5087543 Hdg 093, looking for floc
1411 Photo-49
1413 1521 423798 5087563 Macrooregonia crab (female) FG R460-048
1418 Awaiting nav
1421 1520 423868 5087561
1431 423872 5087563
1433 1518 Collapsed pit, photo counter inoperable Photo-51
1435 Pillars Photo-52
1439 1518 423805 5087522 Nav back, Hdg 248
1443 Moving ship to new watch circle, south to VSMHELP ("rumblometer"), seeing old sediment-covered lava tubes
1458 1518 Rattail fish, skylight to lava tube,
1459 1516 423863 5087343 Hdg 182 pillow lava Photo53-misfired
1504 1517 Fish, pillow lava covered with yellow sediment (iron oxide), spots of white
1507 1520 Patches of white stuff growing in cracks
1510 1519 More white material mixed in with orange covering on pillow lavas
1513 1519 Collapsed lava pool
1516 1519 423944 5087191 Diffuse flow, greenish-orange and white material in cracks and over pillow lavas
1519 1518 423881 5087181 Diffuse flow and white material in pockets Photo-54
1520 1518 More white material on pillow lavas
1521 1516 shimmering lava lake Photo-55
1521 1517 Fairly cloudy water, extensive white mats
1523 1519 423857 5087158
1526 1517 Pillar of basalts
1527 1518 423856 5087148
1528 1520 Large collapsed pits, white in pockets, bad visibility, Hdg 183
1530 1519 423871 5087113
1530 1522 Lobate flow with white material, flatter area Photo-56
1533 1514 test photo, counter test Photo-57
1534 1522 Lobate flow with white and orange material FG R460-049
1535 1522 Diffuse flow over flat pillow lavas FG R460-050

FG R460-051


1535 1521 423846 5087107
1535 1521 Diffuse flow venting Photo-59
1541 1521 423836 5087125
1544 1522 At VSMHELP location but instrument not seen
1544 1523 White material on pillow lavas Photo-60
1545 1522 423828 5087106
1558 1520 423817 5087107
1552 1523 Pillow lavas covered with orange floculent material
1553 1521 423818 5087111
1555 1522 Flat lineated sheet flow surface, floor of collapsed area, looking for rumbleometer
1556 1522 Lateral-ing left and right (panning)
1556 1522 423838 5087123
1559 1521 Lava folded up in coils
1559 1521 423812 5087158
1600 1522 423824 5087149
1600 1519 Pillar sticking up out of floor, out of lineated flow into collapsed area FG R460-052
1601 1518 Lots of pillars, app. 3 meters in height FG R460-053
1602 1519 Scale worms? on bacterial mats
1603 1520 Diffuse venting, scale worms on pillars, thin coating of white material (mats?)
1604 1519 Intact roof of collapsed area, lobate surface
1605 1518 Diffuse venting
1605 1518 Back into collapsed area
1605 1518 423886 5087151
1606 1521 Rat tail fish
1607 1519 Lava bridge FG R460-055

FG R460-056

1606 1516 423902 5087155
1608 1518 Going south, then west
1609 1521 In floor of collapsed area, large pillars
1610 1520 Bright red with yellow polychaete swimming (scale worm?) FG R460-057
1611 1520 423890 5087121
1611 1521 Pockets of possible bacterial mats (white material) in cracks and on sides of pillars, top of pillar covered with scale worms, some swimming FG R460-058

FG R460-059

1613 1517 423876 5087111
1614 1518 Remnant of roof of lobate flow before collapse
1615 1522 Heading back into flat sheet flow area
1617 Turned port lights on high, blew a fuse, no lights
1618 1512 423841 5087116
1618 1520 Got lights back
1619 1521 Lava whirl
1622 1521 Lost lights again
1622 1522 423835 5087106
1622 1522 Got lights back!
1622 1522 Not as much light as before, moving west, Hdg 273
1625 1523 Step down into collapsed area about 1 m
1626 1524 Fiddling with lights and camera image
1627 1524 423822 5087090
1628 1523 423821 5087089
1628 1521 Going back north and west
1630 1520 Very flat surface, not as much white material, mostly greenish
1630 1521 423804 5087104
1631 1522 At same latitude as target, moving west
1632 1523 Sea cucumber, very flat surface
1633 1523 423799 5087120
1634 1522 Lateraling south
1635 1521 423791 5087113
1637 1523 Turning east, back towards Mkr-33 target, in flat part, more white material
1640 1520 Some diffuse flow/shimmering water, red polychaetes, white material abundant around flow
1641 1521 Step down about 1 meter into sheet flow
1644 1521 423882 5087088
1645 1522 423899 5087082
1648 1523 Flat area with long straight crack FG R460-060
1648 1523 423887 5087065
1652 1521 Cloudy water, still looking for Mkr-33
1654 1522 Swirl feature in lava, bacterial mat heavy
1657 1521 423898 5087092
1657 1521 Moving out of flat area into more jumbled up area, more floc, bacterial mats
1701 1521 Back into flat area, still looking for Mkr-33
1701 1521 423888 5087058
1702 1521 Thick sediments, pillars, poor visibility
1704 1516 423861 5087035
1705 1519 Big lava pillar FG R460-061

FG R460-062


1707 1517 Large collapsed lava pit, having trouble finding Mkr-33
1714 1510 423856 5087044
1716 Stopping video
1719 15088 423789 5087009
1721 15088 423787 5087032
1727 15088 423715 5087046 Starting the search for mooring 98V103
1733 Starting video
1735 1515 423723 5087037
1742 1514 Rat tail fish
1743 1515 423699 5087073
1750 1515 423683 5087052
1754 1515 Stopping video, going back to cage, moving ship to the north of mooring target and look again
1755 1515 423696 5087054
1801 1485 423770 5087048
1804 1483 At cage, going to search for 98V103 again
1811 1490 Hdg 267, still looking, 35 m off bottom
1819 1490 Looking south, Hdg 180
1825 1490 Coming up to 1400 meters to look for 98V103's glass balls with sonar
1833 1400 Cage is 508 m north of drop position of mooring
1838 1399 423668 5087012 Blue
1852 1412 423665 5087074 Blue
1941 1417 Using Alvin calibrated positions for western transponders (only 2 down during the Alvin dives)
1946 1488 27 m above bottom ready to descend
1958 1516 On bottom. restart video archive
1956 1522 Heading east toward target (mooring)
2005 1523 Lateral back and forth (in and out), still moving east toward target (Mkr-33)
2010 1522 423867 5087094 Good fix
2013 1521 Mkr-33 in sight, lots of flow from vent
2018 1520 Photo-62
2019 1523 423890 5087075 Looking west, good fix Photo-63
2020 1523 Back to ROPOS transponder FG R460-063
2031 1523 Scale worm grazing on bag creature FG R460-064

FG R460-065

2033 1523 Betacam and S-VHS highlights recording
2039 1523 Betacam off & SVHS off
2058 1523 Hobo temp probe from Alvin dive 3247 Photo-65


2052 1523 423851 5087102 Good fix
2103 Hobo probe placed in the port side of biobox
2105 FG R460-066


2108 All highlights tapes on
2109 Polynoids on bag creature FG R460-067
2114 Highlight stopped FG R460-068
2117 Pull back see colony and vent FG R460-069
2121 Traveling east to Sonne field (for tube worms)
2123 1522
2133 1518 Rollin' rollin' rollin'
2142 1516 Travel west generally with North/South lateral along that path
2144 1517 423939 5087152 Good fix
2147 1519 Lava bridge Photo-68
2158 1516 Under the ship
2203 1520 423882 5087092 Good fix
2209 15080 Flying high in search of tubeworms
2220 1525 423906 5087109 Several areas of high fluid flow of cloudy gray effluent, white bacterial mat on broken lavas , large broken sheet flow blocks, good fix Photo-69


2226 Bacterial filament (?), highlight tapes on FG R460-070


2229 Bacterial filaments FG R460-071
2231 Bacterial filaments Photo-72
2234 Grey smoke (camels I think) Photo-73
2237 Paralvinella dela, close zoom on worm down in crack in high flow FG R460-072
2242 Side view of site Photo-74
2244 Same stuff, different angle Photo-75
2248 Highlight tapes off, blue chunks
2258 More P. dela FG R460-073

FG R460-074

FG R460-075

FG R460-076

FG R460-077

FG R460-078

2301 1524 423897 5087114 Cloud Vent vigorous flow, trying to get a rock sample, lots of debris in water because disturbed by ROV Photo-76
2317 1526 423900 5087110 Good fix, still trying to get sample
2323 Got sample in Pacman
2326 FG R460-079
2330 1526 423902 5087111 Photo of sample site (Cloud Vent), a few 'furry' rocks (bacterial cover?) sampled, sample in starboard compartment of biobox Basalt



2337 1525 423900 5087111
2345 1525 423901 5087111 Mkr-N6 deployed at Cloud Vent, Hdg 284, facing west, pit just north of marker
2347 Frame grab of Mkr-N6 (Cloud Vent) FG


2353 Heading back to cage
2357 1494 423874 5087165 Ditto

JD 241

423918 5087154 Ship heading to new watch circle to begin Imagenex survey
0016 Video tape #8 ended, stop taping
0046 Ship in watch circle
0051 1486 424033 5087455 Start to record **Imagenex ** (pencil beam sonar)
0053 1489 424038 5087461
0055 424054 5087475 Hdg 180, first N-S transect = N7 (900 m long)
0100 1495 424034 5087357 Going along N7 transect heading pretty much due South
0104 1496 424033 5087300 Heading south
0111 1495 424027 5087225 "
0114 1496 424024 5087162 "
0120 1496 424026 5087054 "
0131 1496 424019 5086927 "
0142 1496 424024 5086860 "
0151 1495 424025 5086751 "
0203 1493 424023 5086563 "
0204 1498 Down 5m
0208 1497 424023 5086499 End of transect N7
0212 Positioning for next transect, N6
0216 1497 423972 5086502 "
0222 423955 5086497 "
0224 1497 423968 5086495 Start of second transect N6, going north
0235 1482 423958 5086645 Moving slightly northeast along N6
0238 Down 10 m
0246 1491 423969 5086801 Begin to move up 5m
0251 Down 5m
0257 1495 423956 5086946 Heading north along N6
0302 1495 423964 5086971 "
0313 1495 423969 5087103 "
0322 1495 423963 5087178 "
0327 1495 423958 5087247 "
0332 1495 423960 5087302 "
0338 1495 423963 5087373 "
0341 1495 423951 5087407 "
0342 1495 End of line N6. Moving ship west to start of line N5.
0347 1496 423904 5087399 Maneuvering to start of line N5
0348 1495 ROPOS moving south along line N5
0358 1495 423904 5087236 "
0407 1495 423900 5087098 "

Lots of floc

0412 1495 423905 5087043 "
0415 1495 423907 5087010 "
0420 1495 423839 5086921 "
0423 1495 423900 5086876 "
0427 1495 423905 5086810 "
0431 1495 423905 5086753 "
0436 1495 423900 5086679 "
0440 1495 423908 5086592 "
0444 1495 423899 5086557 "
0448 1495 423900 5086490 Ship moving to line N4
0452 1495 423881 5086479
0456 1495 423843 5086498 ROPOS start line N4 heading north
0500 1495 423835 5086536 "
0505 1495 423821 5086553 "
0508 1490 423845 5086578 "

ROPOS dropped 5 m deeper

0510 1500 423831 5086616 Ship went to wrong line (N3). Correcting.
0518 1500 423837 5086714 "
0523 1500 423831 5087241 "
0530 1500 423850 5086849 "
0538 1500 423835 5086937 "
0544 1500 423851 5087029 ROPOS moving NNE to mooring area
0547 1500 423884 5087050 "
0550 End of line N4. End of survey.
0605 1509 423937 5087093 Commence survey with digital camera at 8 to 10 meters above. Running short lines in the vicinity of Mkr-33, worm target area and plume site.
0606 ROPOS has been on the bottom for 24 hours
0609 1510 423978 5087114 Moving east
0610 Changing from 10 to 8 meters above.
0614 1517 423896 5087110 "
0615 Turning to east
0620 1510 423942 5087094 Changing from 8 to 10 meters above

Dive R461

Dive R461

Dive Map

Dive Summary:

Found rumbleometer, couldn't wedge it out.

Marker 33 uplifted slab of sheet flow streaming warm water

Marker N6, N8, 108

Axial Gardens

Sulfide Vent => Castle Vent

Lots of SUAVE

Cloud vent

Deployed bacterial traps

Biology- tube worms, etc

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)

Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

Vent field on east side of caldera

Date (PDT):

August 29, 1998

Date (UTM):

August 29, 1998

Julian Day 241

Time off deck:

2255 (UTM)

Time at midwater search:

0003, August 30

Time on bottom: 0303

Date (PDT): August 30, 1998

Date (UTM):

August 31, 1998

Julian Day 243

Time off bottom: 0340

Time on deck: 0440

Total dive time:

29 hrs 45 min

Total bottom time:

27 hrs 43 min

Systematic E-W bottom reconnaissance traverses in vicinity of vents near 4556'N 12858.8'W

Reconnaissance southward from line of vents to known targets: Mrk-108, Sulfide, Mrk 113, and Axial Gardens

SUAVE analyses of vents

Deploy Mkrs

Systematic search for moorings deployed 1997

Sampling as appropriate

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port off center line of sub)

BioBox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper.

First frame is #78

Mkrs in BioBox

SUAVE mounted port side interior; sensor on starboard arm

2 gas tight water sampling bottles -- #2 red tape on termination on starboard, #5 on port

2 MTR (low temperature recorder) in port Biobox (4127 no tape on rope loop & 4130 black tape

on rope loop)

Glass wool bacteria traps -- 1-4 in port Biobox and 5-8 in starboard

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm

Lasers on RGB camera are 10 cm apart









Comments FGs, photos and samples
2255 Start dive, ROPOS in water; ship launch position 4556'N, 12958.9'W


Entering plume, around 1300 depth


1490 Sitting at 1490, checking gauges, making sure ROPOS is ok
0020 1480 No good fixes yet
0023 1480 Cage motor off to try to get better fixes
0024 1480 423860 5086962 ROPOS just south of watch circle, starting to search for mooring 97V103.
0030 1480 423790 5087110 "
0033 1480 ", lots of white particulate in water column
0037 1478 423780 5086968 Searching...
0040 1480 423843 5086972 "
0044 1480 423781 5086992 "
0047 1480 423763 5087076 "
0055 1480 423757 5086989 "
0101 1480 423697 5087020 "
0111 1480 423680 5087042 "
0124 1479 423606 5087111 Smokey, particulates in water column, looks like a plume waft
0135 1480 423584 5087006 Searching con't
0148 1480 423565 5087008 "
0151 Finished searching (end of tether), didn't find mooring
0156 1447 Lots of smoke surrounding cage, looks like another plume
0204 Pinging from the cage located the rumbleometer within 310 m but direction unknown
0213 Looking for rumbleometer, no fixes on ROPOS yet
0221 1469 "
0238 Moving watch circle to the south because ranges are getting better
0253 1480 Still searching for rumbleometer, trying to get better positions by adjusting cage - lowering cage to 1490

JD 242

1521 On bottom, jumbled sheet flow

Search pattern for rumbleometer

0304 Started archive tapes
0307 1523 426769 5086795 Searching for rumbleometer
0326 1522 423719 5086790 "
0334 1520 Spider crab, big rat tail, basalt columns
0338 1521 423716 5086771 Rumbleometer sighted. About half of NW side instrument package is buried in sheet flow. SE side is standing on its legs. Appears to have broken through a drained lava area. Basalt columns just in view ~20 m to west. Highlight video 0339-0342 FG R461-001

FG R461-002


0346 1523 423712 5086767 Still looking at rumbleometer
0347 1522 423713 5086766 "
0352 1521 Still looking at rumbleometer, highlight tape on.

FGs and photos of rumbleometer.

Highlight video 0353-0357.

FG R461-003

FG R461-004

FG R461-005

FG R461-006



0352 Moving to NE to cross easternmost line of venting, continued sheet and lobate lava, lava lakes, lightly sedimented
0411 1521 423756 5086853 lightly sedimented lobate
0414 1523 " Photo-81
0415 Photo-82
0416 1521 older more heavily sedimented lava, lots of "popcorn" (= floc on seafloor)
0417 1521 lava column Photo-83
0418 1520 lava spires common, thick floc, small mat Photo-84
0421 1517 423929 5086883 thick floc
0423 1518 pillow lava
0427 1517 Turning N to Mkr-33, old looking lobate lava with yellow sediment in interstices, considerable floc and popcorn Photo-85


0431 1513 Up 5 meters over a lava mound
0432 1518 Deep hole with floc coming out of it
0433 1521 423907 5086598 We have come down other side of lava mound, low temperature hydrothermal products
0435 - 0437 Photos of lava forms, basalt columns, lava lakes, partial roofs

Lots of lava lakes in this area







0439 1518 423842 5086981 yellow stain on lava lobes Photo-93
0440 1519 Continuing lava lakes, lobate lava with thicker yellow sediment (30% cover)
0442 1517 423786 5087056 Turning east about 100 m south of Mkr-33 Photo-94
0444 1521 Small bacteria mat
0446 1518 White bacteria mats, no shimmering water seen, turning to north towards Mkr-33 Photo-95


0448 1519 423926 5087081 Bacterial mats very abundant, rugged terrain still Photo-97
0449 1521 Abundant yellow hydrothermal sediment, bacterial mat Photo-98
0450 " Photo-99
0552 1524 Sheet flow, ugly lump fish Photo-100


0454 1522 423860 5087096 Arrived at Mkr-33 site = uplifted slab of sheet flow streaming warm water and covered with white mat
0457 1523 Sitting in one spot. Juniper highlight tape is on. T in fracture 5-13C Photo-102


0458 SUAVE #1. Betacam started (0458-0503) SUAVE


0501 changed archive tapes
0507 Photo of SUAVE probe in venting crack Photo-104
0511 SUAVE #1 ended, T = 3-15, H2S 470 Ámol, Fe 47 Ámol,

Mn 2 Ámol

0514 -


Scale worms (paralvinellids) grazing on bacteria, palm worms

Highlights video 0512-0546

FG R461-007

FG R461-008

FG R461-009

FG R461-010

FG R461-011

FG R461-012

FG R461-013

FG R416-014

FG R461-015

FG R461-016

FG R461-017

FG R461-018

FG R461-019



0545 Deployed glass wool bacteria traps #5 and #6 in venting crack FG R461-020


0555 SUAVE #2 of bacterial mat at Mkr-33 site

T = 11C (constant), H2S ~10 Ámol,

Fe <5 Ámol,

Mn below detection (5 Ámol)



FG R461-021

FG R461-022

FG R461-023

0607 SUAVE #3 in through hole in bacterial mat right beside SUAVE #2

T = 3.9 C, H2S 15 Ámol, Fe & Mn below detection



FG R461-024

FG R461-025 FG R461-026

0611-0616 Highlights video of Mkr-33 operations
0633 1523 Gas tight bottle #2 in venting crack at

Mkr-33, T = 36-37C

Gas tight bottle #5 near GTB #2 location, T = 20-27 C

SUAVE #4 a few cm south of Mkr-33

T = 37C max, H2S 1000 Ámol, Fe 40 Ámol, Mn 18 Ámol

Gas Tight





0642 1522 Deployed MTR4130 (black tape on rope) into venting crack at SUAVE #4 location (Mkr-33)
0650 Deployed glass wool bacteria trap #8 (T = 7C) & #7 (T = 7.5C) in venting crack at Mkr-33.
0657 FG R461-027


0704 1522 Vent at Mkr-33 with glass wool samplers and MTR4130 moving around to look at bag creature. We are facing the bag creature - the basalt look like a series of ropes going forward from the sub. The sub is facing 127 degrees. The crack with the glass wool samplers and the MTR is about 2 m to the right. Photo-109


0707 SUAVE #5 at the mat left of the bag creature. Temperature max at 6.6C SUAVE


0713 Temperature went to 17C in the white mat. This mat is 30 cm left of the big bag creature. Sub is heading at 127degrees. H2S 700 Ámol , Mn 2 Ámol, Fe 5 Ámol
0722 SUAVE #6 in the big section of the bag creature

Temperature of 2.95C. H2S 75 mol, little Mn and Fe.

Worm on bag creature, beta-cam highlights on at 0724 until end of tape.




FG R461-028

0736 Bag creature with bacterial mat and a worm Photo-112

FG R461-029

0738 Photo of bag creature

FG of bag creature


FG R461-030

0749 SAUVE #7 in little section of a bag creature just cm further away from the sub (ie. big bag creature is closer to the sub and the little guy is just a little further away)

Temperature 3.05C, H2S 40 Ámol. Heading 121



FG R461-031

FG R461-032

0757 Stopped SUAVE and starting to move

towards Cloud Vent

0800 Liftoff heading towards cloud vent, sheet flows with long (10 m) crack, heading 90 following cracks Photo-114


0802 1520 Pillows; clear and distinct boundary from the sheets to the pillows Photo-116


0804 Boulders with lots of flying mat, at the Cloud Vent,

Mkr-N6 is just to the left of the sub at 57 degrees

0806 Getting organized at Cloud Vent, sheets of basalt on scarp face, drained lava lake Photo-119
0812 423859 5087103 Turning around to get a better seat at the vent, sheets with long grooves Photo-120
0816 White floc looks like snow Photo-121
0819 423897 5087111 At Cloud Vent but above it and trying to get near the Mkr
0822 1523 423901 5087116
0824 At a vent with lots of water Photo-122
0829 Still looking Photo-123
0830 1520 423905 5087095 Drained lava lake with steep sided wall Photo-124
0835 1524 Come in from the south heading north to get to the vent

Mkr-N6 is forward of us





0839 Moved up close to the Mkr. 22C at the height of Mkr-N6.Temperatures up to 27C in the pit
0844 SUAVE # 8 in the Cloud Vent about 50 cm from Mkr-N6, heading 346. H2S 750 Ámol, Fe 62 Ámol, Mn 2 Ámol SUAVE


0849 Stopped SUAVE; moving to deploy glass wool trap and MTR
0853 Moving, moved about a meter from the last spot which was Mkr-N6 (moved NNW 340), bad visibility. Photo-129
Lots of mat with some black basalt (?). We are sitting on an edge with lots of water coming out of a hole. Photo-130
0900 Vent near the Cloud Vent but it was cool only 4-5C Photo-131

FG R461-033

0904 Moving back into Cloud Vent
0906 Nice wall- lots of broken basalt all covered with a thin film of white mat. some pillows
0908 Lots of snow and lots of bag creatures on the edge of the rock "cliffs"
0911 1523 423903 5087100 Back on top of ridge around the Cloud Vent, heading 49 Photo-132

FG R461-034

0920 On the move to do some East-West lines along the bottom with ROPOS. We want to go about 100 m from this site and will look for worms and do some geology
0923 1522 423888 5087110 Doing Suave #9, Temperature 24C

Fe 55 Ámol, H2S 750 Ámol, Mn 2 Ámol. We are 10 m west of Mkr-N6heading 24




FG R461-035

0936 Deploy MTR0942 yellow handle MTR without the tape
0951 1523 423888 5087111 Deployed the MTR

Deployed glass wool bacteria trap #1

Deployed glass wool bacteria trap # 2

Deployed Mkr-N4 (triangle)

The GWT and MTR are in a little hole The Mkr is located 0.3 m to the left of the hole heading 30

FG R461-036


FG R461-037





FG R461-038

1010 Moving, looking at the site Photo-139


1012 1523 On the move to do some East -West lines along the bottom with ROPOS. We want to go about 100 m from this site and we will be looking for worms and mapping geology
1016 Ship is moving
1021 1518 Heading to NW to get to the start of a transect line
1024 At Mkr-N4, heading 311, basalt pillar (drained lava lake), snow
1026 1522 Sheet flow with some bacterial mat in linear features Photo-141
1029 423844 5087144 Pillars and drained lava lake Photo-142
1033 423841 5087148 Sheet flows with floc in the water
1038 1516 423823 5087193 Sheet flows with some pillows and broken sheet flows
1039 1519 Starting transect heading 90

Pillows covered with mat, broken sheets,

pillows and sheets, drained lava lake 1042

1042 423849 5087203 While going east the sub will lateral north south, see some older lava. There is lots of black lava near areas of white mat. No visible venting but lots of white mat





1045 Pillows with lots of white mat around the borders of the pillows. Diffuse flow. Heading 90. Wide spread diffuse venting but not much in the water Photo-148
1047 423904 5087214 Smoking pit- 3.5 to 4 m deep, lots of bag creatures,

heading 92




1049 Starting a lateral move. Another smoking pit. Moving a little south but always facing east. Drained lava lake
1052 1518 Pillows that are mostly covered with brown sediment Photo-152
1054 1519 423945 5087186 Pillow flows with sediment cover- really nice pillows. Yellow sediment still heading 90
1100 1521 423997 5087200 More pillows with yellow cover. Holothurians visible
1101 1521 More holothurians and brittle stars Photo-153
1103 1521 424024 5087210 More sediment between lobes
1106 Heavy lobate flows with ponding sediments
1107 1519 Water quite turbid, now turning south
1108 1519 Drain back features
1109 1521 424055 5087156 Lava pillar seen
1111 1519 Collapse pits, pillow flows
1112 1521 424034 5087154 Jumbled sheet flows
1114 1521 Back in pillow lavas, quite cloudy
1116 1520 Jumbled sheet flows, water more turbid
1116 1520 Tether in sight
1118 1518 Tether still in sight on the sit cam
1119 1520 423907 5087158 Hdg 278
1121 1520 423956 5087157 Pillow lavas, rat tail fish, cloudy, hdg 283
1123 1520 423954 5087164 Hdg 280
1124 1520 Drain-out of pillow lava, surveying for worm patch
1126 1519 Considerable sediment cover of pillow lavas
1128 1519 Last fix was within 20 meters of worm field
1129 1522 Some floc in water
1130 1520 Drain back features, lava pillars Photo-154
1133 1519 423896 5087165 3.2C on SUAVE, bacterial mats
1134 1520 Bacterial mats Photo-155
1135 1520 Jumbled sheet flows
1136 1519 Bacterial mats hdg 272
1137 1517 Over pit, bacterial mats within view, within 6 m of worms
1138 1520 423886 5087099 Over pit, hdg 271, laterally S for 60m, sulfide>30 mol
1143 1520 423864 5087096 Bacterial mats with crevices, SUAVE shutting down, hdg changed to 90 degrees
1144 1519 Drain back pit, hdg 92, fissures 5 meters across Photo-156
1146 1520 Lava pillar on sit cam
1146 1520 423876 5087125 Hdg 87
1148 1521 Drain back features, on sit cam Photo-157
1149 1518 Increase in floc, should be near Cloud Vent
1150 1520 Jumbled sheet flow
1151 1523 423898 5087106 Bacterial mats in cracks
1153 1521 423911 5087097 Lava pillar on sit cam
1155 1520 423923 5087090 Directly south of the worm site by 30 m
1156 1519 Rat tail fish Photo-158
1158 1520 Pillow lava area
1158 1519 423945 5087105 Hdg 94
1200 1519 423952 5087088 Drained out pillow lavas
1204 1521 423975 5087120 Hdg 95, pillow lavas, rat tail on sit cam
1207 1520 423990 5087117 Pillow lavas, hdg 90
1209 1520 Looking back at gauges
1209 1521 423998 5087105 Same coordinates as N3
1213 1521 Pillow lavas, lump fish, lava contact Photo-159
1215 1522 423994 5087089 Close up of lump fish FG R461-039
1217 1521 Looking at contact between lavas
1218 1522 Bag creature sighted
1219 1520 Sitting still and changing heading 283
1222 1521 Hdg 270, pillow lavas
1224 1521 Crab seen
1225 1518 423985 5087045 Passed transition in lava Photo-160
1226 1518 Lobate flows, looks like contact Photo-161
1228 1519 Again looking at contact, looks like a

dribble over older lava



1229 1520 Lobate flows Photo-164


1230 1521 423967 5087032 Grabbing rock with pac-man
1233 1521 Still looking for glassy rock and moving pac-man
1234 1520 Gave up on sampling attempt, hdg 267
1235 1519 Going to Mkr-N4, hdg 263 Photo-166
1236 1518 423945 5087044 Miss fired on photo Photo-167
1237 1518 Drainback feature, bacterial mat Photo-168
1238 1519 Lava pillar, drainback feature Photo-169
1240 1522 Coming up on wall
1241 1520 Drain out features, lava pillars, crab on pillar Photo-170
1242 1519 Drain out lava pit Photo-171
1244 1522 Milky water, in bottom of pit, hdg 271 Photo-172
1245 1521 Picture of spire Photo-173
1246 1519 Picture of spire as ROPOS rose, drain back features Photo-174
1247 1518 Lava pillars with drainback features, hdg 270
1249 1519 Lava spires with drainback features, hdg 267
1251 1519 Drained out lava pit, jumbled sheet flow, hdg 271
1253 1519 Again looking down into drained out lava pit
1254 1519 Changing hdg to 212 to SSW
1256 1515 Rose to move SSW and to get better nav fix, hdg 360
1258 1506 ROPOS is heading back to cage
1302 1497 Hdg 276
1307 1488 Heading back down
1307 1503 SUAVE started, no nav since 1236
1309 1518 On bottom again, view of lava pillar, hdg 201, target


1310 1519 Moving south at half a knot, last view was of a lava pillar with drainback features
1312 1522 Bottom in view, hdg 186
1313 1524 Sheet flow with some sediment cover and bacterial mat in cracks
1317 1523 Jumbled sheet flow, hdg 171
1320 1522 Broken pillow lavas
1321 1524 Hdg 192, going to Mkr-108, lobate lavas, filled with Fe oxide Photo-175



1324 1521 Bacterial mats, fluffy floc, pillow lavas
1325 1520 Drained out pillow lavas, yellow hydrothermal sediment Photo-178
1326 1519 Yellow sediment and white bacterial mat between lobes Photo-179
1328 1516 Picture of pillow lavas Photo-180
1330 1516 Pillow lavas with striations
1330 1512 423940 5086987 Cage fix, attempting to stop ship
1332 1517 423942 5086976 Cage fix, stalked and sessile organisms, first in awhile,

hdg 180

1340 1515 423966 5086888 Hdg 179, cage fix, break in observations

because of problems with extending computer field

1341 1517 Sessile organisms, rat tail fish Photo-182
1344 1513 Hdg 179, pillow lavas
1345 1518 Contact of newer and older lavas Photo-183

FG R461-40


1347 1517 Stirred up floc, pillow lavas
1348 1517 Purple sponge on pillow lava Photo-185


1351 1513 Near caldera ridge hdg 176
1352 1514 423942 5086787 Cage fix, hdg 177, pillow lavas
1354 1516 Starfish, rat tail, lobate flows Photo-187
1356 1516 Hdg 189, jumbled sheet flow
1358 1517 Hdg 180, jumbled sheet flow
1359 1517 Rat tail in view, jumbled sheet flow
1401 1517 Jumbled sheet flow, quite broken up, hdg 209
1405 1518 Touched bottom and stirred up sediment, sheet flow area
1406 1514 Gauge picture
1406 1518 Broken sheet flow, hdg 213, last good fix on ROPOS at 1236
1407 1519 Going over ridge, pillow lavas
1409 1520 Holothurians in cracks between pillow lavas Photo-188
1410 1519 Large collapse pit, holothurians have removed some sediment, no temperature anomaly Photo-189
1411 1519 Collapse pit photo, once again milky water Photo-190
1412 1520 Yellow hydrothermal sediment in cracks of lobate flows, collapsed pit Photo-191
1414 1519 Lava spire with drainback feature Photo-192

FG R461-041

1415 1525 Drain back features on pillars, lava lake drainout Photo-193


1417 1519 Drained out lava lake, hdg 211 Photo-195
1420 1524 Yellow hydrothermal sediment in cracks, sheet flow
1421 1524 Sheet flow, hdg 213
1423 1524 Ship stopped, jumbled sheet flow with

yellow hydrothermal sediment ponded in depressions

1425 1521 Lava pillar on sit cam, hdg 234, stirred up sediment
1426 1514 Off bottom, hdg 232, no view
1431 1508 Off bottom since 1426, hdg 206, no view
1433 1488 Particles in water, no bottom view, hdg 212
1436 1486 Back at cage, no view
1440 1479 423846 5086597 ROPOS visible in cage cam, cage fix
1444 1504 423844 5086602 Cage fix
1445 1521 423824 5086598 Bottom in view, cage fix
1446 1519 Spire seen in sit cam Photo-196
1448 1520 Sedimented sheet flow, hdg 243
1455 1523 Lots of lava spires/pillars, looking for Mkr-108 on top of pillar Photo-197


FG R461-042

FG R461-043

1502 1519 423853 5086604
1503 1521 423841 5086599
1504 1522 Drained out area of intense floc
1505 1523 423831 5086578
1505 1523 Passed through temperature anomaly (0.2C) with iron and manganese anomaly, but small H2S signal
1506 1517 423821 5086571
1508 1521 423813 5086564
1511 1521 More lava pillars, some bacterial mats, high floc, in right area for Mkr Photo-199


1511 1521 423803 5086561
1514 1517 Found Mkr-108. 0.2C temperature anomaly
1514 1519 423777 5086584 Mkr-108
1516 1521 White bacterial mats, scale worms
1517 1521 423787 5086589
1518 1521 White bacterial mats, scale worms, some flow FG R461-044
1521 1520 SUAVE #10 at Mkr-108. Max temp of 8.1C, average of 6.0C, drifting a lot due to probe position. H2S 230 Ámol, Mn 45 Ámol, Fe 25 Ámol. Photo-201

FG R461-045



FG R461-046

1531 1521 423783 5086590
1534 1521 Flow looks significantly less than July 20 FG R461-047
1545 1520 Looking around Mkr-108, lots of white floc, thick bacterial mat in cracks, bag creatures, crack ejecting large amount of white floc. Highlights video 1549-1553. FG R461-048
1548 1523 423793 5086172
1552 1514 Going to shake the rumbleometer, hdg 7
1602 1514 423755 5086636
1603 1514 423738 5086667 Stopped archive video
1610 1522 Started archive video. Rat tail fish
1611 1522 423710 5086739
1613 1521 423713 5086764 Found rumbleometer, moving ship NW.

Rumbleometer leg wedged in rock. Hydroclastics on rumbleometer suggest turbulent area.





1616 1521 Started highlights video. Trying to wedge rumbleometer free. Photo-206

FG R461-049




FG R461-050



FG R461-051

1620 1522 423715 5086767 Rumbleometer
1650 1522 Still trying to free rumbleometer. Stopped SUAVE logging. Photo-212
1713 1521 Rumbleometer not moving. Heading south to Mkr-113 in Axial Gardens area
1718 1520 Stopped highlights video
1719 1522 423711 5086739
1720 1521 423714 5086732
1724 1519 423698 5086692
1731 1516 423626 5086669
1738 1517 423605 5086445 Rat tail fish
1742 1515 423584 5086339
1745 1514 423525 5086218 NOTE: From 1731 - 1737 crossed a couple contacts
1754 1524 423428 5085950 Approaching Mkr-113, Axial Gardens. Want to scan and find tube worms.
1757 1521 423400 5085918
1759 1525 Picture of lava pillar with dead tube worms on top of pillar. Highlights on at 1759. No temperature anomaly apparent. Photo-213

FG R461-052

1803 1523 423400 5085928
1807 1524 Group of tube worms, no inside animal visible. Region is visibly devoid of Fe-floc relative to Sonne N. Photo-214

FG R461-053

1815 1524 423398 5085926 Exploring tube worms with probe. No thermal or chemical anomaly detected. Moving closer to Mkr-113. Photo-215
1822 1522 Another group of dead looking tube worms on top of lava spire.
1823 1524 423379 5085920 Large clumps of white bacterial mat in crevices of basalts.
1824 1521 423373 5085925 At Mkr-113. Small temperature anomaly over bacterial mats with flow. 0.5C temperature anomaly. Tube worms right below Mkr with flow.
1826 1524 423371 5085922 Tube worms down side of pillar in flow. Bag creatures down side as well. Tube, scale worms, paralvinellids in flow. Everything looks alive Photo-216


1832 1524 423374 5085927 SUAVE #11 at Mkr-113 at top of pillar with flow and worms. Mid-water SUAVE holding on with Pacman. Temperature max at 12C. H2S 237 Ámol, Mn BDL, Fe 7 Ámol SUAVE


FG R461-054



FG R461-055


1846 1523 Surveying area for deploying bacterial traps. Lots of floc.
1854 Trying to reposition VEMCO [temp probe] which was dislodged. The probe looks distorted due to weight on the side
1856 VEMCO redeployed near top of pillar, in worm clump (~20 cm higher on the pillar from where it was)
1857 Redeployed temp probe Photo-220
1904 As above FG R461-057
1911 SUAVE temp probe T 10.5C near tip of VEMCO probe
1912 Tube worms and temp probe area FG R461-058
1915 Zoom on SUAVE parked at another spot near VEMCO FG R461-059
1917 VEMCO slid downhill again
1919 Suave #12 scanning at tip of VEMCO.

T = 10.5 degC, H2S 237 Ámol, Mn BDL, Fe 7 Ámol



1928 Trying to find a few good worms
1931 Biobox FG R461-060 Photo-221
1941 Tube worms being mangled, delivered to starboard bio box (a few in port bio box) Collected close to SUAVE #12 Photo-222



1942 As above FG R461-061
1945 Looking for dying worms and a place to put bacterial traps
1951 Re-re deploy VEMCO temperature probe (to the left and down the pillar), observed polynoids and limpets and paralvinellids
1953 As above Photo-223

FG R461-062

1956 VEMCO location photo (tube worms) Photo-224
1956 As above Photo-225

FG R461-063

2001 1525 423385 5085904 Base of pillar near shimmering water for bacteria traps (have to move a rock first)
2004 423368 5085934 Good fix; rock goes from port to starboard of biobox (this fell in accidentally during tube worm sample #15) Photo-226



2005 Bacterial trap #4 deployed on shimmering water with tube worm, polynoids, limpets, and gastropods Photo-227
2007 As above Photo-228
2010 SUAVE and bacterial traps FG R461-064
2011 Zooms of above FG R461-065

FG R461-066

2012 Highlight tapes on
2020 Suave #13 at bacterial trap #4. Max T=23.5C, H2S 500 Ámol, Fe 9 Ámol, Mn BDL. SUAVE


FG R461-067

FG R461-068

FG R461-069

2022 Bacteria trap #3 deployed on top of where SUAVE scanned, right next to trap #4
2024 Highlight tapes stopped,
2028 FG of bacterial traps #3 deployment FG R461-070
2029 Trying to pick up detritus from Biosample R461-15 (biobox - redundant with tube worm sample) Photo-229

2031 Dead worms with bacterial sediment
2032 1524 423382 5085916 As above FG R461-071
2035 Clump of dead tube worms shimmering water SUAVE #14 T=5.8C max SUAVE


FG R461-072

FG R461-073

2036 As above Photo-230 Photo-231
2037 As above FG R461-074
2039 1523 423382 5085917
2044 Stopped SUAVE
2045 Dead tube worms again Photo-232
2047 As above FG R461-075

FG R461-076

2047 Pacman sample, clump of dead tube worms Biosample


2051 Rat tail sighted. Move northeast toward Sulfide Vent
2051 Rat tail fish FG R461-077

FG R461-078

2052 Drained lava lake FG R461-079
2054 1523 433404 5085944 Sheet flow and crab
2055 Lobate flows
2100 1522 423423 5085972 Murky water
2103 Sea fan, sponges Photo-233

FG R461-080

2103 Golfball sponges, brittle stars & sea cucumbers
2103 Deep sea fauna Photo-234
2105 Starfish, jumbled sheet flow contact lobate flow, new lavas at base of a drainback feature (into older)
2104 423436 5086000
2106 423450 5086033
2110 Pillar Photo-235
2110 Sea cucumber
2111 As above
2112 Sea cucumber and starfish
2114 1522 423502 5086092 2 cucumbers
2115 Some bacterial mat, pillow flows, starfish
2116 Spider crab
2117 Crossed contact between older and newer lava (into younger)
2118 423601 5086115
2120 Yellow sediment
2121 As above Photo-236
2122 423678 5086141 Sheet flow
2122 Photo-237

FG R461-081

2125 Yellow stained basalt sheets, heading 45
2126 1522 423725 5086220 Heading 35, linear features in sheet flows, going from left to right with some cracks going in the same direction as we are heading. Increase in white floc. Photo-238
2129 1522 423747 5086252 Warmer area, holding stations temperature anomaly being picked up by scanner
2132 1512 423751 5086254 Hanging out getting ready to do scanner, waiting for ship
2126 1523 423825 5086288 Coming back down to the bottom, bacterial floc, jumbled sheet flows, fish, white bacterial mats in cracks of sheet flows and yellow staining
2137 Lots of mat around sheet cracks and yellow staining. Lobate flows and drained lava lake Photo-239


2139 423906 5086291 Lobate flows with white mat and yellow film FG R461-082
2140 Lobate in bottom of a pit with white in the cracks and yellow on top Photo-241
2144 1523 423887 5086283 SUAVE #15, hdg 211, Circular Vent




FG R461-083

2152 1523 423887 5086283 Little white blobs - hundreds of snails covered with bacterial mat, next to few scale worms. Vent surrounded by yellow bacterial mats FG R461-084
2156 Temp = 7.1C, H2S 87 Ámol, Mn 2.5 Ámol, Fe 38 Ámol. Doing an east west profile. We were on top of a collapse, and we are now going east, hdg 88
2202 1519 424003 5086304 Collapse feature, some white bacterial mat in cracks of pillow flows. Contact of older flow with younger. Older has sponges. Photo-243




FG R461-085

2203 424008 5086300 Pillow flows with snails and sponges, new basalt has bacterial mat whereas the old basalt has snails and sponges. Photo-247


FG R461-086

2206 424008 5086303 Going up over ridge with pillows, some of them hollow. Scarp between the new flow and the older flow is about 3 meters. The contact is not continuous along strike, could be circular
2209 424025 5086307 Sulfide chimneys, highlights are on



FG R461-087



2211 1513 424021 5086309 At the top of an old massive sulfide deposit. Target Sulfide. This is the largest sulfide feature in Axial. We are at the top and we are 10 m off the bottom. Worms and bacteria on the side of the sulfide. Photo-253
2212 The sulfide deposits is around pillows.

This site was from the Sonne camera tow

2214 Some low temperature venting next to the sulfide deposit Photo-254
2214 1520 424025 5086306 Almost a black smoker but is a white smoker
2219 SUAVE #16 at Sulfide Vent at a small vent at the base of a little castle. Temperature varies a lot and has gotten up to 60C. Very small orifice SUAVE


2222 1520 424026 5086305 Probe is up to 71C. SUAVE #16 started, hdg 53 on the SW side of the deposit, highlights are off 2224, maxed out at 90C, H2S >>1500 Ámol, Fe 65 Ámol, Mn 75 Ámol. Looks like phase separated fluids Photo-255

FG R461-088

2234 1520 424024 5086306 Using camera to do fine scale scanning of sulfide deposit. FG of the top of the little vent, (shrimp?), smoke is clear, light gray, not black FG R461-089
2237 1520 Using the camera to check things out
2240 Backing out hdg 75, going around the sulfide deposits to the left (east), looks like the deposit two years ago
2243 Looking at the vent top and the smoke (not black), looks like inferno going around the deposit, looking at the tube worms FG R461-090
Close up look at tube worm clump. The sub is heading at 307, and the vent is about 2 m in front of the worms
2248 1520 424030 5086304 SUAVE #17 of the tube worms about 2 m from the chimney that we just looked at. These tube worms are not looking healthy, they are not bright red, more of a light gray pink SUAVE


FG R461-091

2251 1520 Start beta cam (2254) FG R461-092
2301 1520 T max 5.3C, H2S ~132 Ámol (may be high), hdg 295, sample of sulfide just below tube worm grab, want to come back for it and worms, FG 094 of tube worm clump (sample we want to come back for) FG R461-093

FG R461-094

2305 Looking around for clump of tube worms just SUAVE'd, lots of floc, anhydrite chimney to west (hdg 356) of worms - high flow, in the background main sulfide spire
2308 Tips of old chimneys that are now inactive
2309 1515 424021 5086307 Thick bacterial mat over sulfides, some sulfide sediment, looking at organ pipes on top of structure in SIT cam FG R461-095

FG R461-096

2312 Unknown red tube-like structure on chimney in background - shrimp?, top of structure is 8.5-9 m Photo-256

FG R461-097

2315 Pillow lavas, hdg 106, ophuroid
2316 1518 424021 5086314 Heading east
2319 Small spire sitting in pillow lavas, hdg 69 Photo-257

FG R461-098

2320 Pillow mound at base of chimney, great pillow lavas, nice striations on the pillows.
2322 Hdg 158, on the NW side of chimney, Tube worms, protozoan mats, marker obscuring color camera, fine now
2326 1517 424047 5086306 Big clump of healthy tube worms, large protozoan and bacterial mats covering tube worms
2330 1515 424043 5086306 Positioning SUAVE in tube worm clump, limpets covering Ridgeia tubes, decide to call "Sulphide Vent" "Castle Vent" now.
2335 1514 424043 5086306 Hdg 142 on NW side of chimney, a few tube worms and lots of alvinellids, limpets and other fauna
2349 1516 424048 5086303 Start to scan, SUAVE #18

Start highlights tape, stopped at 2357



FG R461-099

Photo 258

2359 SUAVE stopped. T max=20C, H2S ~200 Ámol, Mn ~6 Ámol, Fe ~19 Ámol

JD 243

424043 5086304 Mkr-N5 deployed at SUAVE #18 site. Later dives reveal this to be a separate vent, distinct from Castle. Called Mkr-N5.
0006 At structure near Castle Vent (is Mkr-N5 site) limpets, alvinellids, tube worms, protozoan mats Photo-259


FG R461-100

0008 Digital camera turned on, flashes every 15 secs, lots of floc
Looking at a new chimney, hdg 180, very near to last site, but we don't know exactly where, lots and lots of biology - tube worms, protozoan mats, alvinellids
0012 Large spire with sulfide
0016 1509 424035 5086302 Turning around, hdg 271, trying to figure out location of the sulfide chimney (Castle) in relation to the new chimney
0022 Hdg 100, lots of floc in the water, taking digital pics from top of sulfide chimney
0023 Directly over sulfide chimney, passed it
0025 Moving ship to start E-W transects of area just to the south of Sulfide
0028 Pillow lavas, hdg 10, spider crab
0030 1520 424035 5086298 A few tube worms on top of pillow lavas, old broken up lavas, heading east from the castle chimney
0035 Collapsed area, jumbled and ropey sheet flow, some staining at bottom of collapse, striated sheet flow, pelagic sediment, tube worms --look yellow and dying Photo-261
0036 424098 5086294 Striated sheet flow with some tube worm clumps in cracks
0038 1527 424113 5086291
0039 Lots of hexactinellids (glass sponges) and

ophuroid (brittle star)

0041 1529 424156 5086293 Jumbled lavas, some sediment cover
0044 Crab, more jumbled lavas, asteroid, sea cucumbers
0046 Heading south, starting a grid pattern to examine area, old jumbled flows at bottom of collapsed area, some ophuroids
0047 1532 424237 5086258 Still heading south, striated sheet flow, few white globs of floc. Photo-262
0051 424231 5086202 At end point of south transect, heading west now, hdg 274, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, pop can, sea stars, jumbled lava, ridge with striated sheet flow to left
0053 424195 5086195 Visibility is decreasing, sediment cover is increasing
0057 1525 424103 5086212 Spider crab
0101 1516 442160 5086215 Ship moving, ROPOS moved out of position a bit to the east because tether was caught
0104 Spider crab, moving west again, hdg 272,

striated sheet flow, asteroid,

0107 1520 424039 5086227 Pillow lavas, start to move a little further south, hdg 225, coming off of the roof, back into collapsed area with pillars, lobate flow, back down into collapsed (contact around here)
0111 Bacterial cover, increase in orange gelatinous stuff, all between the lobes - probably contact between older lobate lava on roof and new jumbled lavas on the floor that we're seeing now Photo-263
0113 1524 423870 5086173 Jumbled lavas
0117 1528 423805 5086166 More jumbled lavas, no deep sea fauna observed, thus the vote is for new lava, lots of orange gelatinous stuff between the cracks in the jumbled Photo-264
0122 1526 423943 5086056 Turning north, hdg 359, move from jumbled lava to striated sheet flows, lava whirl, lots of orange stuff on lavas (in depressions)
0124 1524 423717 5086188 Sheet flows
0126 Rat tail, still heading north
0130 1518 423697 5086383 Lava pillars,
0132 1517 423730 5086378 Turning east, hdg 90, water very smokey, low vis, lavas still coated with orange stuff, not pelagic sediment some kind of bacteria?, photo of pressure ridge Photo-265
0135 1524 3 m from floor of collapse to roof, white bacterial mats on pillars/in crevices, orange stuff still everywhere, increasing bacterial white mats Photo-266
0137 1523 423827 5086418 New vent! Snow Vent, lots of floc coming out of it (two sources?), shimmering water, not as much orange coating right next to vent, lots of polynoids, a couple small tube worms?, bag creature Photo-267
0144 1524 423828 5086416 Still looking at Snow Vent
0145 Moving east again, coming out of collapsed area up onto the lobate roof
0146 Roof collapsed again, back into pillars, more bacterial stuff (orange) on pillars Photo-268
0148 Back on lobate flow roof, sulfide, more orange stuff, jumbled flow with white and orange bacterial stuff
0150 1524 423985 5086408 Thick orange mat, iron rich mounds, lobate flows,
0152 Lava drips, contact between old and new lava, starfish
0153 1520 424039 5086404 Turning back to look at contact more closely
0155 1521 424038 5086412 Found contact, ophuroid, holothurians, discussing getting samples of the old and new lava Photo-269




0201 Grabbed a piece of the older lava, put in port side of biobox, beta cam stopped Basalt


0206 424043 5086406 Trying to get piece of new lava in claw, black glassy lava very crumbly so have to try for another piece
0220 1522 424033 5086409 Got it- trying to put it in port side of biobox
0233 Rock too big, trying to break it into a smaller piece
0240 Got a small piece
0243 Put new lava piece in port side of biobox Basalt


0245 Continue traverse that was interrupted by contact discovery, moving east, hdg 93, jumbled flow
0248 1504 424063 5086416 Tether adjustments
0250 1517 Back on bottom, pillow lavas, hdg 90, jumbled flow
0253 1530 424135 5086413 Lots of pelagic sediment, older lavas, rat tail
0256 Rat tail, old lava still, hydroids and corals, holothurians
0258 Collapsed floor, jumbled sheet flows, spider crab
0259 1527 424275 5086408 Hdg 1, north - starting a new traverse, jumbled sheet flows
0304 1530 424212 5086468 Hdg 2, push-up blocks, light sed draping, accumulations are in interstices; small sponges
0308 1530 424214 5086488 Jumbled flow, holothurians, branching hydroids, hydrozoans? corals? Photo-273
0312 1530 Push-up jumbled flow with a transition to a whorly sheet flow, ophuroids and holothurians
0314 1531 424211 5086527 Jumbled flow, lots of deep sea fauna, uplifted sheet flow, striated sheet flow, asteroids
0320 Lineated sheet flow with sediments in depressions
0323 Flat striated sheet flows with heavier sediment cover, crab on ropey sheet flow, asteroids, holothurians,
0326 1530 424170 5086602 New lava! Another contact point (CONTACT 2) probably '98 lava, striations on new pillow lavas, highlights tape on, some ophuroids, vis decreasing Photo-274



FG R461- 101


0331 Dive terminated, low oil pressure in cage reservoir
0440 ROPOS on deck

Dive R462

Dive Map

Dive Summary:

Dive 462 started at Mkr-33 Vent. The Osmosampler was deployed at Mkr-33. Suction samples of diffuse flow, bacterial mat, bag creatures and polynoids were sampled. Bacteria traps were deployed and others recovered at Mkr-33. The digital still camera was also utilized. After a few hours at Mkr-33 Vent ROPOS headed for Mkr-N4 at Cloud Vent where bacteria traps were deployed and other traps were recovered. Niskins and Gas Tight Bottles were also collected. ROPOS continued on traversing the area of the old SONNE wormfield. No live worms were seen. An orangish/whitish mat covered the lobate lava. When the mat was brushed off the lava the basalt underneath it appeared very shiny and young.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)

Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

Vent field on east side of caldera

Date (PDT):

August 31, 1998

Date (UTM):

August 31, 1998

Julian Day 243

Time off deck:


Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

August 31, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept 1, 1998

Julian Day 244

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

9 hrs 01 min

Total bottom time:

6 hrs 31 min

Mkr-33 Vent for deploying osmosampler, bacterial traps, and collecting animals, bacterial mat, traps, and water

Cloud Vent for deploying bacterial traps and collecting animals, bacterial mat, traps, and water.

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port off center line of sub)

BioBox mounted lower center work area, starboard side divided in half

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper.

First frame is #1

Suction sampler with 8 large bottles. #1 and #8 have 200 Ám on intake, all others have 200 Ám on outflow

Osmosampler in BioBox and standard jaw

5 L Niskin bottle mounted upper forward on starboard bumper bar

2 gas tight water sampling bottles-- #2 port, #7 starboard

Glass wool bacteria traps in BioBox-- #9-12 in port and #14, 15 in starboard

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm

Lasers on RGB camera are 10 cm apart









Comments FGs and samples
1630 ROPOS entered water at Mkr-33.
1705 727 ROPOS left cage for remainder of descent
1741 1394 Entering plume fluids
1746 1472 In plume
1748 1490 Cage stopped
1750 1522 ROPOS on the bottom
1751 1519 Wall covered with orange bacterial mat, hdg west to

Mkr-33. Linear features with white bacterial mat, sheet flows with mat in cracks. Found Mkr-33.

1753 1522 423858 5087102 Want to deploy osmosampler and analyzer in front of

Mkr-33 near large crack.

1755 1523 Deployed osmosampler unit next to crack, trying to remove nozzle from biobox and put in crack next to marker FG R462-001

FG R462-002

FG R462-003

FG R462-004


1808 1523 Still trying to get nozzle in crack FG R462-005

FG R462-006

1814 1524 Got nozzle in crack Photo-2

FG R462-007

FG R462-008

1817 1523 Mkr-33 with osmosampler Photo-3
1818 1524 Suction sampler, Bottle #1, to collect fluid. Placing nozzle right into crack. Bacterial traps already have growth on lines. Suction Sample


FG R462-009

1824 1524 Filling Bottle #1 with diffuse fluid at slow speed, flushed for about 5-10 minutes.
1832 1523 Flushing between sample bottles
1834 1524 Suction sampler, Bottle #7, to collect bacterial mat and worms on the sides of the crack. Sucking at medium speed in order not to homogenize mat. Suck and stop, suck and stop, got lots of polynoids Suction Sample


FG R462-010

FG R462-011

FG R462-012

1906 Scale worms FG R462-013
1912 Suction sampler slurping FG R462-014
1916 Photo of slurp Photo-4
1930 Finished with slurp #7
1933 Start slurp gun #6, same sample goal as #7 Suction Sample


FG R462-015

1939 Slurping as above FG R462-016
1946 Slurping as above FG R462-017

FG R462-018

FG R462-019

1950 Bacterial trap FG R462-020
1953 Will sample patch of white mat and polynoids SUAVEd yesterday; into Slurp bottle #5 Suction Sample


2000 Patch of polynoids FG R462-021
2003 Slurping mat and worms in circular fashion to obtain semi-quantitative sample
2006 Chasing down the worms that try to escape
2011 Sampled area; exposed basalt

Two Paralvinella dela

FG R462-022

R462-023 R462-024

2013 Trying to slurp P.dela but he's hanging on; ultimately wasn't sampled
2014 Sampled area Phot
2015 Polynoid patch; just outside of sampled area for density estimation FG R462-025
FG R462-025a
2016 Polynoid patch with bacterial traps in background FG R462-026
2021 Animals in slurp bottle #5 FG R462-027
2024 Attempted Slurp bottle #4 of mat and "bag creature," vacuum cleaner got clogged, we'll return to this bottle later Suction Sample R462-5
2025 1523 423852 5087098 Good fix; moved 2 m to "bag creature"
2039 Trouble with the slurp pump, reversing flow to spit out a rock Photo-6
2042 Pump is clear
2044 Attempted Slurp bottle #3, bacterial mat around bag creature, but it still doesn't work Suction Sample


2059 Recovery of bacterial traps #7 & #8

Visible indications of bacterial growth


Bac Traps



FG R462-028

2105 Deploy bacterial traps #9, #10, #11 & #12 FG R462-029

FG R462-030

FG R462-031

FG R462-032


2135 Looking down on Mkr-33 Crack Vent with bacteria traps Photo-9


2138 Getting in position to collect bag creatures
2141 Scooped up bag creatures with Pacman and put in port side bio box on top of bacteria trap #8; first section floated out and got away, but possibly a smaller piece stayed in the box. Biosample


2148 Looking at bacterial traps again FG R462-033
2150 Heading 222 looking at the uplifted side of the sheet flow slab at Mkr-33. Zones of venting are clearly marked by white staining. Photo-11
2151 Leaving site and surveying Photo-12
2152 Photo-13
2153 Overhead view of vent site, which is an uplifted section. Photo-14
2155 Running digital still camera, rep rate 15sec, starting at altitude of 5 meters
2157 Continuing DSC run, at 8-9 meters
2158 423854 5087090 Now heading east (070) toward Cloud Vent. DSC on, alt 5 meters
2202 Video of water column and ROPOS gauges.
2203 1515 423930 5087077
2204 1520 423918 5087111 Still in transit to Cloud Vent
2204 First visual of gray smoke of Cloud Vent. Much smoke venting from rubble in an apparent collapse area.
2210 At Mkr-N4 in Cloud Vent area, looking at bacteria traps.
2211 Positioning for recovery of bacteria traps
2216 Moved suction sampler intake to port arm for deployment of bacteria traps. Bacteria trap #14 deployed at Mkr-N4.
2223 Deploying bacteria trap #15, down in hole next to N4, top of rope barely visible for recovery.
2229 1523 423897 5087117 Recovering bacteria trap #2 from Mkr-N4 at Cloud Vent. Heading 120. Bac Trap


2239 Bacteria trap #2 is now in the starboard biobox.
2247 1520 Deploying bacterial trap #14 in crack at Cloud Vent.
2254 1523 Recovering bacteria trap #1 from Mkr-N4 at Cloud Vent. Bac Traps


FG R462-034

2259 1523 Debate about nature of Cloud Vent- alternating ejections of fluid that is clear then floc? Or is ROPOS just making a mess?
2301 1524 423893 5087115 Looking for a spot with high flow to collect water for gas tights and Niskin bottles around Mkr-N6
2306 1525 423899 5087110 Really high flow of gray smoke and chunks. Filling Niskin bottle right over Mkr-N6 in super high flow. Niskin


2310 1526 Filled both gas tight bottles (#2 and #7) with fluid from high flow at Mkr-N6 Gas Tight



2312 1525 423901 5087106 Heading back towards Mkr-N4 looking for rocks with worms and bacteria
2319 1523 423897 5087117 At Mkr-N4, hdg 271, not enough polynoids to sample so collecting a basalt sample with Pacman instead
2328 1523 423890 5087111 Rock sample into starboard biobox Basalt


2332 Heading back to Mkr-33, hdg 270
2333 At Mkr-33, sampling bag creatures with pac man
2338 Bag creatures in pac man, will remain there until surface Biosample


FG R462-034


2339 Hdg 85, towards worm site, digital still camera turned on for the transect from Mkr-33 over Cloud Vent to the worm site, flying at an altitude of 8m for digital stills
2342 Over Cloud Vent
2343 1519 423903 5087115 Dropping down 5 m to find worm site, couple meters east of Cloud
2346 1517 423922 5087131 Turned off digital still; right over 'worm site', heavy yellow/orange coating on lobate lava flows; polynoid; orange stuff in cracks; sitting at the site of the Sonne fix for the worm field, scraping off coating to look at basalt, looks very black and glassy Photo-16

FG R462-035

FG R462-036

2357 Question as to what the coating is, looks fluffy, zoom on coating. Photo of the uncovered basalt Photo-17
2358 Hdg 230, towards other worm site, the shifted fix for the Sonne worm field
0002 1522 423892 5087063 Traversing area where we think the worm field was in '97 - have they all disappeared?
0004 1519 423900 5087065 Tall, thin lava pillar Photo-18
0006 1524 423879 5087089 Pushed up feature with some hydrothermal activity, thick white bacterial mat, looks like lots of Depressigyra, named Snail. Photo-19


FG R462-037

FG R462-038

0012 Moving around a few meters, pushed up sheet flows, bacterial mats, looking to see if there are any remnants of the '97 worm field Photo-21
0013 Dense patch of polynoids, Harmothoe? FG R462-039
0014 Layers of sheet flow - very distinct, polynoids all over, moving up a pillar, top of collapsed flow into lobate flows Photo-22


FG R462-040

0017 423892 5087115 Hdg 62, towards Cloud, flying over a collapsed pit, pillar, NW of Cloud now
0019 Stopped and looking around, lots of white bacteria on jumbled flow in collapsed pit
0021 Off bottom, back to cage
0131 ROPOS on deck

Dive R463

Dive Map

Dive Summary:

Dive R463 consisted of approximately 12 hours of Imagenex survey along the South Rift Zone in the eastern caldera area. The survey was followed by a trip to Milky Vent (Mkr-N2) where the suction sampler and gas tight bottle sampled fluids. Bacteria traps were deployed and recovered at Milky Vent. Easy Vent was discovered and bacteria traps were deployed there also. ROPOS had to come to the surface because of tether problems and repairs.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)

Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

East side of caldera in southern area

Date (PDT):

August 31, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 1, 1998

Julian Day 244

Time off deck: 0533

Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

Sept. 1, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept 2, 1998

Julian Day 245

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

20 hr, 37 min

Total bottom time:

17 hr, 6 min

Continue Imagenex sonar mapping further to the west started on Dive R460

Search for the missing tube worms north of Milky Vent

Sample biology at Milky Vent

Sample biology and sulfides at The Castle

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port of center line of sub)

BioBox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 28 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper (note: the first photo of this dive will be photo-37 because film continued from R462)

Markers in BioBox: N9 in stbd side

Slurp gun with hose attached to port arm

3 sets of glass wool bacteria traps in each side of the Biobox

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard claw on starboard (7 function) arm









Comments Frame grabs, photos and samples
0533 ROPOS off deck
0637 1467 424157 5085986 Gauge at designated depth with ROPOS
0640 1467 ROPOS out of cage
0650 1504 ROPOS at designated depth for Imagenex survey at 25 meters above. Problem with imaging system
0704 1504 424134 5086002 Moving ship north long Line N9
0710 Commencing Imagenex survey

Proceeding north on Line N9

0724 1504 424146 5086156 "
0734 1503 424142 5086298 "
0745 1504 424144 5086500 "
0755 1499 424123 5086645 "
0805 1500 424140 5086816 "
0816 1492 424142 5086970 "
0826 1498 424131 5087120 "
0835 1499 424137 5087268 "
0842 Turning around and heading south
0846 1496 424113 5087386 "
0856 424078 5087277 "
0907 424098 5087104 "
0921 1493 424086 5086943 "
0936 1493 424082 5086740 "
0951 1497 424096 5086514 "
0959 424094 5086370 "
1007 1501 424084 5086255 "
1019 1501 424079 5086084 "
1023 1501 424075 5086000 Turning around and heading north
1031 1501 424018 5085989 "
1043 1502 424013 5086140 "
1052 1502 424016 5086261 "
1103 1502 424015 5086441 "
1105 End of line turning around
1108 423973 5086486 Hdg 180
1140 423965 5086009
1143 423903 5085987 Hdg 011
1216 423884 5086490
1220 423852 5086484 Hdg 179
1254 423808 5085957 Hdg 272
1306 423776 5086158 Hdg 012
1425 423777 5087404
1426 423758 5087392 Hdg 269
1430 423729 5087389 Hdg 176
1455 423724 5087060 Hdg 189
1553 423725 5086157
1559 423717 5086067
1603 423715 5086009 End of line
1608 423664 5086002 Starting line, Hdg13
1632 423631 5086414 Hdg 10
1636 423640 5081499 Hdg 6
1641 423656 5086545
1717 423656 5087100 Hdg 12
1738 423660 5087418 End of line, hdg east 91
1750 423841 5087402 Starting line, hdg 181
1819 423844 5086998 End of line
1821 423806 5087002 Starting new line, hdg 320
1844 423594 5087280 Hdg 339
1910 1494 423499 5087792 Transit to Milky Vent
1912 1494 423497 5087845
1921 1502 423501 5088053
1925 1504 423481 5088190
1940 1506 423512 5088655
1946 423530 5088649 Back on the bottom, spider crab
1948 Lobate flows
1951 Archive tapes on
1952 1530 423481 5088662 No yellow sediment, pelagic (?)
1954 1531 423532 5088654 Young sheet flow, small push ups, jumbled flows
1955 White floc, lava lake, 1 meter high pillar
1957 1528 Drained out area, relatively fresh lava (photo 37 = photo #1 for this dive, film continued from previous dive R462) Photo-37
2000 Hydroid (photo), lava lake, floc increase, Hdg 94 Photo-38
1959 423619 5088648
2004 423593 5088540 Fe rich sediments, drips (stalactites)
2009 Hold while navigation is repaired
2011 423701 5088642 Back on bottom, nav has been repaired
2012 Fecal trails, more oxide
2021 423798 5088651 This whole east west traverse has been old lava (Bill C) FG R463-001

FG R463-002

FG R463-003

2024 Increase in sediment (patch)
2025 Spider crab, rat tail fish
2027 Spider crab
2028 423869 5088657
2030 Turning southwest, Hdg 216
2032 423917 5088630 Starfish
2036 Waiting for the ship to catch up
2040 Sediment ponding - lobates and jumbled flow - no signs of hydrothermal activity
2042 423922 5088591
2046 423907 5088547
2048 Hdg 243 toward Milky Vent
2051 Spider crab, rat tail fish
2052 Crossed NE/SW feature near drained out area, (possible indicator of tectonic control on geological features)
2054 1518 423838 5088467 Hdg 273, golfball sponges on rocks
2056 423806 5088453 Tube worms sighting gastropods and thick bacterial coating on tubes FG R463-004
2101 Tube worms Photo-39
2103 Polynoids, blue coating on rocks, filament, ~100 meters East milky vent, tube worms are alive with top cm of tubes translucent compared to brown below FG R463-005

FG R463-006

FG R463-007

FG R463-008

FG R463-009

FG R463-010

FG R463-011

2108 423801 5088441 Moving Hdg 210, more blue stuff, more tube worms Photo-40
2109 Going over old flows with a lot of sponges on them
2110 423791 5088413 Old worms site, large white worms in a collapsed pit on a wall Photo-41
2113 In transit still Hdg 314 Photo-42
2113 Crossing contact between old and younger lavas
2114 Heavy oxide deposit Photo-43
Approaching Milky Vent Photo-44
2118 1530 423682 5088435 Gray smoke
2121 Mkr-N2 spotted, spinning polynoid
2126 1532 Positioning to collect water sample with suction sampler
2151 1531 Still positioning to collect water sample.
2155 1532 423680 508420 In position for water sample collection with suction sampler
2204 1532 423678 5088420 Sampler with stbd gas tight (bottle #6) Photo-45

Gas tight R463-1

2227 1532 Moving slightly forward to reach vent with suction sampler nozzle
2238 1531 Sampling with suction bottle #8 (first large container), just water Suction Sample


2244 Sampling completed. Sampling location about 1m up on ledge from previous SUAVE scan location. Just next to Mkr-N2.
2249 1531 423679 598420 Deploying bacterial traps at sampling site, Traps #18, #16. Good fix. Photo-46


FG R462-12


FG R463-013

2307 1526 Moving off to Oxide Vent, hdg ~270
2313 1529 423652 5088439 Turning north towards Oxide Vent, hdg 350, floc in water, light oxide covering
2316 1533 423645 5088471 Hdg 132, turning south trying to find Oxide Vent
2325 1529 423632 5088450 In vicinity of Oxide Vent, lots of orange oxides in depressions of lava, trying to locate position which was scanned in R460
2330 1530 423627 5088444 ROPOS stopped, hdg 305, trying to decide if we are on target, decided we are off by at least 20m
2332 Looking for original scan location, moving due east ~20m, then south
2338 Still looking, orange fluffy floc all over the basalts
2340 Found some white bacterial mat, hdg ~50; polynoid
2344 1533 423677 5088444 New vent, named Easy Vent
(Easy in nav), hdg 352
FG R463-014


2350 1533 423675 5088444 Positioning to deploy Craig's bacterial trap #17, polynoid (new type), trap deployed
2355 Tether management


Coming back up to the surface because of problem with level winding, bringing cage on deck and try to fix it while ROPOS still in water
0210 ROPOS on deck for repairs

Dive R464

Dive Map

Dive Summary: Dive R464 began at Milky Vent where bacteria traps were repositioned. The suction sampler was utilized near Milky, MiniSnow, The Pit, Snail, and Castle Vents. Several markers were placed or repositioned on this dive. Mkr-N2 was repositioned at Milky Vent. Mkr-N9 was deployed at MiniSnow Vent. Mkr-N1 was moved to SnowBlower Vent. Mkr-N7 was placed south of Contact 4. Mkr-N9 was deployed at Snail Vent. Bacteria traps were deployed at Mkr-113 and retrieved in the same area. Gastight and niskin samples were taken near Castle Vent, as well as tubeworms and sulfide samples..

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)
Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

Eastern side of caldera in south region

Date (PDT):

Sept. 1, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 2, 1998

Julian Day 245

Time off deck:


Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

Sept. 2, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 3, 1998

Julian Day 246

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

19 hr 00 min.

Total bottom time:

16 hr 25 min.

Continuation of aborted Dive 463

Suction sample microbial mats at: Oxide Vent


Floc on basalts

Cirque vent

Mkr 108 or 133

Gas tight water samples at vents to be selected

Niskin sample at vent to be selected

Sample biology and sulfides at The Castle

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port of center line of sub)

Biobox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper

Markers in biobox: N7,?

Suction sampler with hose attached to port arm

Glass wool bacteria traps in each side of the Biobox

5 liter Niskin bottle

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm









Comments Frame grabs, photos and samples
0545 ROPOS launched in cage.
0707 1481 Out of cage.
0712 1523 423685 5988444 On bottom heading 310, heading to oxide vent but came across a milk -like vent.
0717 1528 423678 5088437 Another milky vent off to look for oxide, heading 282.
0720 Rat tail.
0721 1526 423683 5088416 Some diffuse venting.
0723 1526 423689 5088413 More venting, lots of cloudy water.
0725 1532 423679 5088420 Bacterial traps Mkr-N2, Milky Vent best approach is 042 THIS APPROACH IS IDEAL FOR THIS VENT. Repositioning bacterial traps. Bacteria on the lines of the glass wool traps 16 and 18. FG R464-001

0739 Off the bottom and on the move to oxide vent, one of the traps is in a hole - looks like a drained pillow, lots of white coming out. FG R464-002


Photo-2 (no flash)


0744 Overhead shot of Milky Vent. Photo-4
0745 1528 423668 5088421 Heading to Oxide Vent heading 313
0748 Yellow sediment with a mixture sheet flows and pillows, ropy lava, looking for a broad pillar that is flat on top.
0752 Ropy lava - (a ridge of it).
0753 1531 423630 5088438 Good fix, milky water all around.
0754 1528 This may be it, some small chimneys Photo-5
0757 423628 5088466 On the top of the feature - some pillows, we are going to the edge and coming back at a heading of 180. Photo-6


0800 1522 423628 5088455 Good fix.
0802 1529 423622 5088454 Collecting a suction sampler #4 (short jar), some shimmering water. Photo-8
0804 423628 5088455 Sucking the stuff on top - whiter the better, having a hard time reaching, having a difficult time getting a sample with the suction sampler connected to Pacman. FG R464-003

Photo-9, Photo-10Suction Sample


0814 Sucking working, finished at 0820. FG R464-004

FG R464-005

0821 Getting ready to take off and go to Pit Vent.
0825 1529 Moving ship.
0829 Off the ground moving heading 171, sheet flow lavas, ropy, little sediment with white balls.
0831 1532 423637 5088445 Low viscosity lava, orange material still with us as we go, rattail fish, some floc in the water.
0834 1529 423662 5088390 Now into pillow flows, contact from sheets to pillows, pillow mound.
0836 1527 Back into sheets very ropy heading 171, channel flow lavas climbing so probably going up stream.
0838 Stopped for a moment, sheet flow, going down hill at 0839.
0840 1526 423691 5088301 Orange floc sediment, glassy dark red mottling, lots of yellow sediment. Photo-11





0843 Large pillows with pelagic sediment, no orange sediment coating, nice contact from a black lava and one coated with yellow stain. Photo-16

FG R464-006


0846 1523 423706 5088201 Brittle star and lots of snails and sponges, pillows, rat tail, looking for a contact between big pillows with small pillows between.
0849 Heading south, pillows with lots of yellow mat between the pillows, collapse pillow with several cm of orange sediment. Photo-18



0853 1523 White mats with orange stuff covering the mats - looks like loihi, stopped, no shimmering water, unknown branchy thing.
0857 1522 Moving south, thick covering of yellow sediment, hollow pillow with lots of yellow sediment.
0859 1521 423706 5088142 More white floc, some white mat, white floc out of vent - stopped. Photo-21

FG R464-007

FG R464-008


0903 Beta cam on - thinking of sampling

orange oxide mat with white stuff coming out, beta cam off 0904.

0909 One of the sample inlets for the gas tight samplers was broken . Thus must trigger both to get the sample.
0911 1522 423706 5088143 Good fix, beta cam on, beta off (0914),

moving into position to suck, filling big jar #18 for water sample, #18 has no filter, stopped at 0925.

FG R464-009

FG R464-010

FG R464-011

FG R464-012

FG R464-013

Suction Sample R464-2

0925 Suction jar #1 short jar, getting white stuff from the same place that we got water for jar #18. Suction Sample


0935 Still getting white stuff, shifting to get white stuff from another vent, keeping the same jar.
0948 Still sucking. FG R464-014
1005 423710 5088141 Finished sucking, deploying Mkr-N9 rectangle-Mini Snow.
1019 Leaving site, heading south to Pit Vent, heading 176. FG R464-015



1023 Pillow basalt with oxide deposits in cracks, rat tail. Photo-25



FG R464-016


FG R464-017


1026 Driving south 180 pillows with yellow sediment in cracks. Photo-30
1028 1521 423724 5088081 More sediment , especially in holes,

pillow lavas.


FG R464-018

1032 1517 423733 5088017 Heading 180, pillows with more sediment covering everything, drained lava lake, pillows, lots of open pillows and a big drain feature.
1034 1515 Lava drain back feature.
1035 1515 423713 5087967 Cloudy water with pillows and drain. features.
1038 1519 423719 5087924 Much more yellow sediment cover,

drained lava features (about 3 m deep).

1041 1515 423720 5087891 Heading 180, more of the above

big lava lake, more whit patches on the other side with less yellow sediment.


FG R464-019


1043 1518 423723 5087835 Shimmering water with scale worms, new lava - pillows, diffuse venting FRESH LAVAS??? Photo-35
1045 1516 423711 5087834 Black lava with white between pillows

collapse features.


FG R464-020


1048 At the Pit Vent?, or at least the Mkr-N1
1054 1517 423728 5087838 Looking for the vent, realize that we had problems with the manipulator last time, the marker is on the rim of a hollow pillow, dimension 3 m x 4 m. Photo-38

FG R464-021

1059 1518 423719 5087835 Marker in front, Snow Blower Vent to the side of the marker. FG R464-022


1101 1519 423721 5087834 Snow blower Pit. Lots of whit stuff coming out of a hole with a diameter 10 cm. Below is a hollow sheet, highlights still on. FG R464-023

FG R464-024

1103 1519 423722 5087835 Suction sample, large jar #12, no filter for water, about 3-4 m away, marker is to left of sub, sub heading at 312, marker on edge of the pit not in the pit. Suction Sample R464-4

FG R464-025


1108 1519 423724




White floc is coming out along the roof and out the hole, lots of white mat in jar. FG R464-026
1111 1519 423722 5087835 Suction new jar #2A little jar for white floc, coming out in pulses not much now, the snow blower vent died then more came out, very sporadic venting. Suction Sample


1124 Facing 310, the pit is behind, the marker should be back and on the starboard side, looking into hole and see shimmering water and scale worm coming out of hole. FG R464-027
1128 Still looking into hole, another scale worm, hdg 311. Photo-41


1131 Hdg 032, looking for marker.
1133 Shimmering water, see pit.
1134 The hole is NW of pit and the marker is due north of the pit.
1135 Picking up Mkr-N1 and moving it to the Snowblower Vent. Photo-43

FG R464-028

1137 1519 Snow blower vents seems to have lost steam. Marker just SW of snow blower vent.
1145 Begin lines, raising sub to ~5 m above bottom. FG R464-029
1147 1514 423718 5087828 6 METERS ABOVE, directly above Mkr-N1, hdg 350, turning on digital camera.
1150 Ship moving 600m due east, looking for burnt tube worms, leaving new lava, moving into old. Photo-44


1151 1518 423739 5087825 Lobate lavas with extensive orange mat. Photo-46
1154 1520 Orange mat still cover everything, floor still collapsed.
1155 1520 423769 5087825 Sheet flow on bottom of collapsed, orange mat completely covered, looks like white mat covered with orange. FG R464-030
1156 1519 Coming into rubble, edge of collapse, wall with pillars.
1159 1518 423801 5087825 Back to pillars.
1200 1519 423815 5087825 Collapse appears to be 2m deep, pillars.
1201 1517 423822 5087823 Pillars holding up some of the roof in the collapse area. Photo-47
1202 1518 423832 5087825 More collapsed floor. Photo-48
1205 1519 423846 5087819 More orange colored lava.
1208 Lava with orange and white mat.
1209 1519 423883 5087820 Clam shells and tube worms in old lava, our position is at or near contact and old/new lava. Contact 4. Photo-49

1215 1519 Sipunculid worm.
1217 1519 Tube worm remains, clam shells.
1218 1519 423881 5087821 Blue gelatinous form "Blue Blob". FG R464-031
1221 1519 423882 5087822 Dead tube worms in old lava.
1223 1519 Turning 180 to head due West to look for contact, in old lava, see new lava.
1223 1519 423878 5087815 At edge of new lava, highlights on. FG R464-032

FG R464-033

1228 1519 Crab on new lava.
1229 1519 Tube worms at edge of old lava and new lava, highlights on.
1232 1519 423883 5087818 looking at tube worms, clam shells. FG R464-034
1234 1518 moving to look at tube worm remain, going south along the contact. Photo-50
1236 1519 Along contact, clams and worms. Photo-51
1237 1517 Along contact. Photo-52
1238 1518 423879 5087808 Contact, new lava, seeing pockets of venting. Photo-53
1239 1519 423878 5087804 Into old lava, orange sediment covered. Photo-54
1240 1518 423879 5077795 On edge of old and new lava

See Orange flag, broken off not attached to anything Flag.



FG R464-035

1242 1519 Crab, dead tube worms and clams, facing south.
1244 Hdg west, on edge of old/new, see live crab and dead tube worms.
1246 1519 423879 5087793 Zooming in on live tube worms,.
1249 1519 423877 5087790 Looking for contact again, hdg 222.
1250 1518 423874 5087781 Hdg 213 following new lava.
1253 1517 423886 5087780 Live tube worms, right on contact

lots of white mat.




1257 1519 423889 5087783 Video quality dropped due to telemetry. Large TW.
1300 1520 423878 5087773 Placing marker Photo-60
1306 1520 423886 5087774 Mkr-N7 placed. Photo-61
1308 1520 423885 5087774 Straightening out marker.
1310 Having problem with cage camera.
1313 1519 423887 5087772 Tube worms, still working with cage camera, iris on camera is tired, switched to different camera. Photo-62
1319 1520 Iris on cage camera is tired, switched to different monitor.
1321 1519 423888 427771 Looking for spot to deploy glass wool traps - abort trap deployment. Photo-63

1322 1520 Exploded pillow lava. FG R464-036
1329 1520 Tube worms, diffuse flow, palm worms, right on contact, colony appears to be between old (right) and new (to the left of the worms) lava lobes, clams on old lava highlights on.
1336 1520 Contact, very visible. Photo-64
1338 1514 Marker N7. Photo-65
1340 1477 Moving to Snail.
1454 1523 Lost GPS due to fire alarm.
1517 1524 423831 5087074 Driving slowly NW, got nav back, but it seems ROPOS is stuck, moving east over sheet flow covered with oxides and fractures.
1520 1524 423854 5087083 Good ROPOS fix, hdg towards target.
1521 1524 423878 5087088 Lots of thick chunky white bacterial mat with flow, lots of snails. FG R464-037

FG R464-038

1528 1524 Trying to position to suck snails and the white mat they're nibbling on. Photo-66
1531 1523 423878 5087086 Getting ready to suck snails, then mat, into small jar #0. Suction Sample


FG R464-039

1548 1524 423878 5087086 Still sucking mat now. FG R464-040
1556 1524 423883 5087074 Still sucking.
1559 1524 423877 5087088 Deploying Mkr-N8 at Snail, hdg to Mkr-108 Vent, Digital still camera on for a couple of pictures. Photo-67

FG R464-041

FG R464-042

1620 1515 423826 5086869 Hdg 225.
1634 1523 42377 5086643 Closing on Mkr-108, hdg 179.
1636 1519 Looking for Mkr-108, lots of floc and mat, drained lava lake.
1642 1519 423787 5086586 Mkr-108 Vent, scale worm, white mat. Photo-68
1645 1524 Lots of scale worms, some bag creatures, white mat. FG R464-043
1649 1524 423784 5086592 Suction small bottle #2B of scale worms and mat, having problems with sucking, giving up on sucking. FG R464-044

Suction Sample


1715 1519 Hdg to Mkr-113 Vent, Axial Gardens. Photo-69
1718 1522 Proceeding south, rat tail fish, collapsed area with yellow material, possibly new lava with covering, black glassy rock poking through yellow, white floc. Photo-70
1723 1520 Brown and white floc, jumbled sheet flow, rat tail fish. Photo-71

FG R464-045

1726 1520 423707 5086464 Leaving jumbled sheet flow into flatter area, drained out lava, spires, pillars, not very glassy, no sessile organisms. Photo-72


1731 1520 423646 5086364 Hdg 210, nothing active yet, lobate lavas, no sessile organisms.
1734 1521 423572 5086218 Lobate lavas with some shallow drained out areas, two rat tail fish, really glassy area on edges of flow, star fish, some sediment, can't tell if old or new, see contact. Collapsed pit with glassy at edges on top of pit. Rat tail, several sea cucumbers. Shallow drained out areas. Possible area of new sheet/lobate flow over old. Fronts of lobate looks glassy, hard to tell age. Coming into collapsed area, roof collapse, shrimp. Glassy smooth lobes, some sediment, confusion! Spire, drained out area/lava lake, sea stars and cucumbers on tops of area. Two spider crabs. Photo-74





FG R464-046



FG R464-047





FG R464-048





1747 1521 423476 5086125 Still heading towards Mkr-113, flatter glassier area, same surface, sea star, cucumbers, rat tail, sponges, brittle stars- lots on surface. Photo-89




FG R464-049

1751 1521 Lobate lavas, age? Rat tail, cucumbers, some collapsed area, on surface again. Brittle stars, sea stars, sponges. Areas with increased sediment- correlate with new surface? Down in a hole then into young? lobate flow with orange/ yellowish sediment on it. Traversing between old and new flow Photo-93






1801 1523 423416 5085934 At Mkr-113 Vent- found tube worms- don't look alive. Scattered about. Group of tube worms that look like they've fallen off the top of a pillar! Photo-99


1804 1524 423390 5085922 Clumps of dead worms that look fallen. Seismic activity? Garden of Destruction. More tube worms on top of surface. Looking for mkr. Thick white bacterial mat, almost filamentous looking. Photo-101

FG R464-050





FG R464-051



1809 1523 423367 5085919 Spider crab, looking for mkr, lots of dead tube worms! Some live worms among the dead ones. Photo-108


FG R464-052






1816 1524 423372 5085927 Hdg 164, looking south, Mkr-113 Vent is on east lip of a collapse. On edges, lots of bacterial mat, bag creatures, polynoids, looks fresh. Alvinellids, palm worms, that are alive. Thick bacterial mat. Found Craig's traps. Polynoids (at least 2 types). Traps look coated, worms on trap. Recent alive tube worms. Photo-115




FG R464-053





FG R464-054





FG R464-055

FG R464-056

FG R464-057

1836 1524 Deploying bacterial traps #20 and #21 in crack at top of pillar (north side) with lots of biology (tube worms, alvinellids), hdg 170
1843 Little red shrimp swimming by
1844 423370 5085922 Photo of traps and Mkr-113 Vent Photo-127
1856 423373 5085933 Retrieving bacterial trap #3, in port side of biobox; deploying new bacterial trap #19 at same site, CAGE CAMERA IS DOWN Bacteria trap


1917 Move to tube worms

new venting at site




FG R464-058


1524 423376 5085939 Patch of dead tube worms, Hdg 035 FG R464-059
1926 423376 5085939 More pictures of tube worms Photo-131



FG R464-060

1928 1524 423377 5085935
1938 423377 5085935 Collect a batch dead or dying tube worms into port side biobox Bio sample


1951 Moved bacterial trap #3 port to starboard
2008 Vent fish sighting

more tube worms

FG R464-061


2010 423378 5085937 MORE tube worms into port biobox FG R464-062


2023 Nine anemones counted FG R464-063


2030 Head to Castle Vent Hdg 90
2032 1524 423391 508593 Tube worm clumps, spider crabs
2033 Collapsed pits Photo-137


2034 Pillars in the large lava lake, some venting, questionable lava age identification Photo-139
2036 Cruddy pillows Photo-140
2040 Jumbled sheet flows Photo-141
2041 Pillar Photo-142
2043 Sediment covered lobate lava Photo-143
2044 Orange deposit under side of lobate, staining between pillows, black specks, "craters" apparent in sediment
2044 Large lava lake, orange sediment cover Photo-144


2048 Jumbled sheet flow. thick orange sedimentwith "papillae" not characteristic of pelagic sediment Photo-146


2051 Low venting, shimmering water bag creatures, polynoids, bacterial mats Photo-148
2052 1524 423576 5085921 Mats Photo-149
2055 White mat and/or grout, polychaetes, bag creatures
2056 1521 423591 5085927 Emerged from lava lake (VT), Pillar Vent discovered, more vents
2058 1522 423611 5085932 Into pit, slime Photo-150
2059 Hdg 99

hollow lobe of lava


FG R464-064


2101 Out of venting area
2103 1521 423645 5085949 Hdg 45, heading change to castle
2105 Pillows Photo-153
2107 1522 423654 5085962
2108 Bluish
2111 Cage in view (tether management)
2118 422117 5085933 Back on the bottom, jumbled sheet flows, same sediment, whirly sheet flow
2121 Basalt substrate with some sediment Photo-154
2122 Basalt substrate with some sediment Photo-155
2122 1527 423737 5085972
2124 Crossing sheet flow with striations; "elephant tracks" in the sediment
2124 Sheet flow looks the same but losing linear features
2126 Ugly Lumpfish Photo-156
2127 Jumbled sheet flow; sediment cover increasing
2128 Rattail fish; jumbled sheet flows
2130 Passed over oxide mound similar to previous dive
2131 Jumbled sheet flows, moderate sediment cover
2132 Murky water; nearby hydrothermal venting? Broken up lava with orange floc sediment in interstices
2132 Orange floc is stringy; sheet flow that is heavily sedimented; visibility compromised; prawn
2133 White mat with orange oxide--center of low temperature venting? Back into jumbled surface with pockets of white mat with less sediment; ratio of mat to orange sediment increasing
2134 New vent site with white mat and broken sheet flow lavas; video overlay pause; most lavas appear to be folded like a curtain
2135 Video overlay back on; basalt glass fragment sitting on seafloor--hydroclastics
2137 Orange floc is dense, less white mat, glass shards still present (or are they just bare spots?) Some bare spots are shiny.
2140 1525 423870 5086122
2141 1524 423878 5086128
2141 Looking for contact with pillow lavas at Castle Vent; looking for a miracle
2142 Up and over a big rock
2143 Less sediment cover; little white mat--popcorn texture; now onto lobate flows; fat rattail fish; moved from one rock jumble to the next; now a drained lava lake
2143 1523 423925 5086168
2143 Large lava lake structure; pillar; more orange floc; part of one large drainback structure; fat rattail fish; lots of orange flow--indicative of venting just after the flow flowed
2145 Arrived at another lava lake with some tube in it; back to striated sheet flows, coming to folded curtain-drape textures; another spire; some parts of roof there
2146 1520 423973 5086207
2147 Lobate lavas with orange floc in interstices; popcorn white mat
2148 Glassy surface on one lava; lots of orange floc; no white mat; 50 m SW Castle Vent
2150 1521 434937 5086254
2151 Lobate flows; more pillows; white mate; 15 from Castle Vent; a depression about 5 m deep or so
2152 Arrived at structure with tube worms and diffuse flow; polynoid swimming
2154 We may have missed contact while going over drop; sulfide talus around tubeworms
2155 Abundant tubeworms; Mkr-N5; structure is 8-10m high and partially caved in; we have arrived at Castle Vent
2155 1510 434035 5086301
2157 Highlight tape rolling
2158 Big rattail and dead tube worms; "There a whole lot of scavenging going on" says Kim
2159 Back to the cage for tether management; cage camera has failed
2203 Cool ctenophore

We must surface soon so can only do quick sampling
2209 1519 434017 5086279
2210 Lobate flows, now more pillows
2211 Tube worms, white mat
2211 1517 434032 5086297
2214 This vent does not appear to be Castle Vent, but this is were Marker N5 is; there are 2 sulfide structures
2217 Tube worms growing out of heavily sedimented lavas; all of this appears to be in a depression
2218 1514 434041 5086296 Arrived at Flattop again; there are 2-3 sulfide structures here and a basalt pillar with some sulfide and worms
2221 Spider crab
2222 Another spider crab
2222 Castle vent; rocks covered with white mat; the vent is a thin spire with black Photo-157

FG R464-065


2224 Kim's highlight tape still running
2225 Will sample with Pacman; spire is likely anhydrite; will try to sample top of spire Photo-159
2228 Spire broke off and fell behind stump Photo-160

FG R464-066

2231 Has some sulfide in Pacman; there is white anhydrite; "A sulfide in the claw is worth two in the tubeworm bush" --Dave & Jon
2233 424032 5086297 Re-sampling stump with Pacman FG R464-067

FG R464-068

Sulfide spire


2334 424032 5086297 Niskin buoyant/exiting plume sample but not from rising plume, just nearby sea water Niskin


2240 Crushed a dead spire with the claw; organic pipes with anhydrite tops; Dave saw chalcopyrite inside the spire
2241 424032 5086297 Setting up to fire gas tights at Castle Vent stump; fluid is quite clear; both gas tights fired, one port in plume (GTB#5) and the other about 17" away in sea water (GTB#2) Photo-161



2246 Searching for tubeworms for Tsurumi, those with Massoth's second (#18?); FG tubeworms and lasers FG R464-069
2247 Photo-162
FG R464-070
2255 Positioning slurp sampler to get the nice, clear fluid from the stump of Castle Vent
2257 Trying to determine if slurp sample is actually getting fluid
2258 424032 5086297 Slurp pump is broken so we're letting fluid rise into suction canister #1; sample is likely highly compromised Suction sample


2302 1519 424023 5086297 Deploying Craig's bacteria trap #22 in high flow zone, hdg 69; one trap is broken
2311 1519 Deploying bacteria traps #24 and #23 (the top is pried off one cylinder of #23), same location as above; #22 looks like a hole has melted through the bottom FG R464-071
2316 One of Maia's tube worms is out of it's tube flapping in the water FG R464-072
2321 1519 424026 5086303 Heading to sulfide chimney with Mkr-N5, hdg 90
2324 Lots of mat, found chimney (Flat Top) with Mkr-N5, hdg 125;
2330 Trying to determine where SUAVE #18 was taken exactly, so Maia can get tube worm sample from same site; vent fish sitting by tube worms and alvinellids Photo-163


FG R464-073

2334 1516 424041 5086304 Taking sample from directly behind Mkr-N5, hdg 197; tube worm sample in stbd biobox Bio sample


2337 Hydraulic line burst to 5-function arm, dive terminated, ROPOS ascending to surface


ROPOS on deck

Dive R465

Dive Map

Dive Summary:

Dive 465 was a bottom reconnaissance survey of an area south of the caldera where a comparison of SeaBeam surveys taken in 1981 and 1998 revealed bathymetric anomalies probably resulting from new lava flows. Navigation of ROPOS was bad because of incorrect delays for the transponders so positions recorded are those of the ship in P-GPS.

The eastern contact of the older partially sedimented sheet flow and new lava was encountered. The new lava appears to be dominated by pillows but there are also lobate and sheet flows. Yellow staining and floc were encountered in places. Animals ("bag creatures") and white bacterial mats are sparse to non-existent on the surface of the new flow. A 6 m high scarp strikes N-S.

Two samples were taken at the flow front; one was a branching drip structure. The dive was terminated prematurely due to failure of the 3-chip video camera.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)
Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

3 n. mi. south of the caldera along the rift axis

Date (PDT):

Sept. 3, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 3, 1998

Julian Day 246

Time off deck:


Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

Sept. 3, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 3, 1998

Julian Day 246

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

8 hr 42 min

Total bottom time:

5 hr 31 min

Bottom reconnaissance traverses over the 1998 volcanic eruption in the upper south rift zone.

SUAVE any vents discovered.

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port of center line of sub)

BioBox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper

Markers in BioBox

SUAVE mounted port side interior; sensor on port 5 function arm

2 gas tight bottles with intake on stbd arm

5 liter Niskin bottle

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm









Comments Frame grabs, photos and samples
0741 ROPOS launched
0925 1816 Contact bottom, abundant sediment cover in topo lows, bad fixes (due to incorrect delay for transponders), ship driving 0.5 knot, sheet flow visible, heading west
0934 Breccia Photo-1
0937 12959.18' 45 52.18' Ship position; still bad fixes, heading due west
0942 Crinoid, pelagic sed cover about 50% Photo-2
0943 Jumbled sheet flows
0945 pillows, sed cover Photo-3
0951 Jumbled sheet flow, edge of cliff/fault scarp?
0955 CONTACT-new lava! Yellow material at base of flow and in cracks, denotes new lava, pillows Photo-4








0957 Have come up 5 m from base FG R465-001

FG R465-002

FG R465-003


0958 Pillows Photo-13
1002 Pillows, 20 m from contact Photo-14


1005 59.14' 52.18' FG R465-004


1008 FG R465-005
1010 1785 Grabbed chunk, wedge/trapezoid shape, orange stripe inner surface, step in side, port BioBox FG R465-006

FG R465-007



1014 1782 59.175' 52.163' Top flow front, drip structures, must be on slope, plenty of yellow (Fe) stuff Photo-17

FG R465-008


1019 1784 Grabbing flow structure, in port BioBox, long, bonelike, glass, yellow stuff Basalt?


FG R465-009

FG R465-010

1024 1781 59.18' 52.17' Tether caught, back to cage
1029 1782 59.19' 52.17' Pillows, up about 15 m from contact Photo-19
1032 1780 Evidence of flow from bottom of pillows, broader lobes, more fluid morphologies, BIG rattail!, lobate flows, no pillows Photo-20


1034 1781 59.22' 52.18' Seds in crevasses, yellow or white? looks white, about 10-20% cover
1039 1781 Linear feature, broken sheet, broad lobes on top of flow different from front, no collapse, fluid looking flows, upper crust broken up Photo-22


1042 1780 59.24' 52.19' Crevasses , no flow seen, looks like iron bacteria and bag creatures and mats, possible poop identified, fluffy material FG R465-011


FG R465-012


1048 1780 59.27' 52.19' Back into broad flat pillows, flow texture seen, yellow/orange material in cracks, near center of sonar anomaly (Bill Chadwick) Photo-26
1059 1781 59.30' 52.19' 75% bacterial/bag creature cover, yellowish Photo-27


1100 1780 Temperature check in bag creatures (bag sniffing) no thermal anomaly FG R465-013


1102 1780 59.30' 52.19' TopaLava Target
1106 1780 59.35' 52.18' Broken sheet flows, ropy lavas, a little less orange mat, images of orange goo Photo-30

FG R465-014


FG R465-015

1112 1781 Little crevasse, color change (white) along crack, orange further out, no thermal anomaly Photo-32

FG R465-016

1114 1781 59.38' 52.17' Broad, massive lobes, flat regional topo, crab, less mat, getting more pillows
1117 1781 59.42' 52.17' Pillows Photo-33
1121 1774 Gaining elevation, crab, little mat, pillows, staining on underside of rocks, FG R465-017


1124 1773 Morphology matches slope: steep=pillows, flat=more sheets Photo-35
1125 1773 59.49' 52.16' BIG DROP OFF, scarp about 6 m, oriented about N-S, brecciated face of scarp, collapse pit? NICE stratigraphic column in wall, hollow pillow at top Photo-36





1132 1772 59.52' 52.17' Along collapse, rubbly bottom, broken pillows in bottom Photo-41
1137 1778 Glassy lobate pillows, varying orange mat thickness Photo-42
1145 1772 59.63' 52.16' Large pillows (1-2 m), 2 crabs, going upslope, reddish staining undersides, thermal/water altering stains Photo-43





1153 1760 Tube-like pillows, some broken, very little seds Photo-48



1200 1749 59.74' 52.15' Pillows, upslope, rattail Photo-51
1205 1735 59.77' 52.15' Pillows, sediment increase in the interstices
1208 1732 Cracks with white coating; broken up glass in pockets; looks like we're getting to the top of the main rift zone Photo-52
1209 1734 Stopped on broken pieces of rock, yellowish-white coating on broken surfaces Photo-53
1210 1733 Continuing on, ~15 from center of rift zone; ~100 m away from plateau of rift zone; no animals so it looks like same flow
1211 1733 59.86' 52.16' Spider crab
1212 1732 59.88' 52.15' Smaller pillows, no striations, light sediment cover
1213 1732 Flattening out a bit, still in pillows; no animals
1214 1730 Fish; thicker coating of tan material in pockets; glassy lobes Photo-54


1215 1727 59.95' 52.15' Very glassy lobes in these pillows, tubular pillows broken off Photo-56
1216 1725 Striated pillows
1217 1723 Pillows, tan material in interstices; larger pillows Photo-57
1218 1719 Getting close to top; tubular pillows; smooth surfaces, glassy
1220 1720 Small glassy lobes; similar to pillows we've seen at other sites on the ridge; stopping to catch up with tether
1222 1720 Continuing west; flatter here, slightly flatter lobes; collapse
1223 1719 1300.03' 52.14' Brecciated sheet flow; fish; ropes Photo-58
1224 1720 Jumbled sheet flow Photo-59
1225 Glassy surfaces; jumbled flow Photo-60
1227 Squatty mounds/spires in jumbled flow; tether management - going back to cage
1322 0.046' 52.14' S. Contact 2
1456 Looks like a fried 3 color camera cable, coming back on deck.
1513 1230 wire out
1623 ROPOS on deck

Dive R466

Dive Map

Dive Summary: Dive R466 took place at ASHES Vent Field. A HOBO temperature probe and Osmosampler were deployed at Hell Vent. Twenty-one SUAVE samples were taken at various vent sites. Bacteria traps were deployed at Hillock/Phoenix Vent and ROPOS Vent. A huge clump of tubeworms and biota were sampled at Hairdo Vent. Time was spent observing sulfide worm behavior at several vents. The dive concluded with a Digital Still Camera session.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)
Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

ASHES site

Date (PDT):

Sept. 3, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 4, 1998

Julian Day: 247

Time off deck:


Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

Sept. 4, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 4, 1998

Julian Day 247

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

17 hr 27 min

Total bottom time:

14 hr 41 min

Short-term Osmo deployment at Hell Vent

Survey of field, check chimney locations

Check HOBO probe deployments

Low temp diffuse flow scans (SUAVE)

Worm samples at the same spots as SUAVE

SUAVE scans and video mapping of sites on chimneys

Must be back on deck by noon for air drop of electronic board by C140

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper (~6" port of center line of sub)

Biobox mounted lower center work area

Markers in Biobox: 2, 11, J1, L

SUAVE mounted port side interior; sensor on 7 function arm

Osmosampler for deployment

Pacman sampler on port (5 function) arm

Standard jaw on starboard (7 function) arm

Gas Tight #6 on port side (black tape on peek tube near end

Gas Tight # 7 starboard

Niskin bottle (5 L)









Comments Frame grabs, photos and samples
0102 ROPOS launched.
0105 ROPOS leaving cage.
0218 Entered plume.
0230 Sighted bottom, ropy sheet flow, lots of floc in water, orange oxide clumps/mounds in cracks. FG R466-001
0233 1546 421358 5087086 South of ASHES, mores oxides, glass sponges, about 40m south of Hell.
0236 1545 421354 5087107 Heading North, jumbled flow, lots of sponges, high density of suspension feeders.
0239 Floc increasing as we head into ASHES, lots of oxides, sighted Hell.
0240 At Hell, lots of tube worms, zooming in on base, lots of snails (Provanna), little anemone, coming around south side of Hell. FG R466-002

FG R466-003

0244 1545 421372 5087130 Hdg 283, looking at Hell Vent. Sulfide worms hanging out in their tubes in between live Ridgeia.. FG R466-004

FG R466-005

0248 1547 421374 5087134 Shimmering water under a flange, highlights tape on. FG R466-006

FG R466-007

FG R466-008

FG R466-009

0252 421378 5087134 Highlights tape off, moving up Hell, hdg 290. Highlights back on.
0254 At top of Hell, multiple spires, can see 4 smoking spires so far, lots of tube worms, sulfide and palm worms. Looking for a place to deploy the Osmosampler. FG R466-010

FG R466-011

FG R466-012

0301 421374 5087136 Highlights tape off, still looking at Hell Vent.
0308 421371 5087129 FG R466-013
0311 FG R466-014
0312 1544 421375 5087129 Spire with sulfide worms, beautiful smoking top. FG R466-015

FG R466-016

FG R466-017

FG R466-018

FG R466-019

FG R466-020

0323 421373 5087130 Sampled spire with sulfide worms, top of spire broke off, sample will stay in Pacman; highlights tape off. FG R466-021



0326 Deploying a high temperature Hobo probe into the spire just sampled (for Osmosampler), hdg 312. Getting pulled off site a bit.
0350 1544 421374 5087128 Beehive where attempting to deploy Hobo. FG R466-022
0356 Hobo dropped and recovered (0400).
0406 1544 " " Hobo successfully deployed, ~same hdg. FG R466-023
0415 1544 " " Osmosampler probe successfully deployed. FG R466-024
0420 1546 Moving NE to Inferno, sheet and lobate, popcorn, dense floc in water column and on lavas.
0426 1547 421401 5087178 See clams 4 cm long, first time seen in this vent field. FG R466-025

0428 1547 Continuing transit, see tube worms, arrived at Mushroom Vent. Has grown in thickness and height since 1986.
0430 421389 5087162 Inferno Vent. "Flame" (2 phase separation) in chimney on top. Hobo deployed by Alvin in July has coating of bacteria. Marker 19 (flag marker from 1986) now unreadable because of bio-coating. Highlights video from 0431-0433. FG R466-026

FG R466-027

0439 1547 421390 5087159 Palm worms on base of chimney on south side, hdg 351 FG R466-028
0443 palm and sulfide worms FG R466-029
0445 Hdg E to Virgin Vent, doing tether management
0447 1542 Mushroom Vent
0450 Problem with cage camera. Image broken up.
0451 1545 Heavy coating of floc on lobate lavas, tube worms, anemones, white mat, limpets. Awaiting ship to move.
0457 1545 421420 5081763 Chuck Fisher's markers dropped out of Alvin's basket. Just beyond is a new low temperature vent field named Gollum Vent. Good biological gradient: white mat, limpets, anemone, scale worms, gastropods (Provanna)
0504 1546 421431 5087173 Hdg 72 Virgin Vent. Hobo deployed in July. Anhydrite spire has grown since July. Seems darker (sulfide) at its base. FG R466-030

FG R466-031

0507 Heading North to look for more Virgin-like vents.
0508 1545 Hdg 000, Virgin's Daughter being colonized by Provanna, paralvinellids, and polynoids. Tube worms to North on sheet flow. FG R466-032
0513 Hdg 180 over bacterial mats, clams, anemone, iron oxide floc and mini-mounds over sheet flows looking for Crack Vent.
0515 1547 421440 5087132 Marker 117, Crack Vent. Installation from July Alvin dive for filtering diffuse flow from a small crack. Leaking vent water on NE corner. Not in a good position. FG R466-033
0522 1547 421426 5087134 Hdg 168, see several anhydrite mounds of Crack Vent, some with small (30 cm) spires. FG R466-034

FG R466-035

0526 Moving West to look for Phoenix Vent.
0527 1547 Phoenix Vent. Solitary chimney ~4 m high. Only diffuse flow. Marker 2 at hdg 142.
0532 1544 421391 5087132 Hdg 143 looking at Phoenix Vent. FG R466-036

FG R466-037

0535 Moving to NW looking for ROPOS Vent.
0536 1548 Hdg 254, at ROPOS Vent. Fat pancake- shaped mound ~2 m diameter with small spire on top. Diffuse venting. Lots of animals. No fixes. FG R466-038

0545 Moving SE to Hillock Vent, intact and broken sheet flows. Possible that Hillock and Phoenix are one and the same (bad navigation previously).
0551 Heading for Hell Vent over lobate flows.
0604 Lost overlay for 3 minutes.
0607 1547 421368 5087140 At Hell Vent facing south.
0614 421367 5087140 Start SUAVE #1 in clump of mostly dead tube worms in diffuse flow about 1m North of Hell Vent. Same location as 0607. Tickling the tips of the worms.

Max. T = 5C, no chemical anomalies.

FG R466-039

FG R466-040

FG R466-041

SUAVE R466-2

FG R466-042

0622 SUAVE #1 completed.
0624 Taking entire clump of tube worms. In port BioBox. Hdg 220.

Changed archive tapes at 0631.

FG R466-043



FG R466-044

0635 SUAVE #2 in hole left by sampling tube worm bush. Hdg 220.

Max. T = 6C, H2S ~1 Ámol, Mn = 4 Ámol, Fe = below detection.

FG R466-045



0640 421365 5087140 End SUAVE #2. First fix in a long time. Dropping Mkr-L (eyeball) beside hole left by sampling hat-like tube worm bush.
0648 Moving over lobate lavas to ROPOS Vent.
0701 421387 5087132 At Phoenix Vent. Small Fe oxide mound? Or oxidized sulfide chimney? FG R466-046

FG R466-047

0710 421393 5087132 Deploying glass wool bacteria traps #26 and #25 in shimmering water at Phoenix Vent. FG R466-048
0718 1547 SUAVE #3 in-between bacterial glass wool samplers - started at 0719 then restarted at 0723 and ended at 0728; Max. T =16C, H2S = 135 mol, Mn = 7.5 Ámol, Fe = 5 Ámol. SUAVE


FG R466-049

0732 ROPOS Vent.
0733 1547 421390 5087135 In transit to ROPOS Vent.
0737 Arrived at ROPOS Vent. Thinking about deploying two glass wool traps. First checked temperatures which are around

2.8-3.0 C, with maximum of about 3.5C. The little spire on the top of ROPOS Vent is dead.

FG R466-050

FG R466-051

FG R466-052

0752 Moved around to the other side with a heading of 76 degrees. measuring the temperature at 3.6-4 C with the hottest in the "blue" stuff.
0752 1547 421385 5087131 Moving around again at ROPOS Vent,

heading 165, scanning with temperature up to 17C. Started a SUAVE at 0759. SUAVE #4 stopped at 0806.

T= 29C, H2S 340 mol, Mn 40 mol, Fe 80 mol.



FG R466-053

0807 1547 Deploying glass wool bacteria traps #26 and #27 on ROPOS Vent at site that we just scanned with SUAVE.
0810 1547 421386 5087134 Best fix for ROPOS Vent to date.
Still deploying Moyer glass wool traps number #28 and #27 finished deploying traps 0819. FG R466-054

FG R466-055

0820 Moving to collect worms going through pillows with little mat and some yellow staining.
0827 1546 421389 5087154 We are going to SUAVE a pile of organisms with tube worms and the rest. Hairdo Vent SUAVE #5. T = 14C, H2S 138 mol, Mn 12.5 mol, Fe 8 Ámol, temp average about 12.5C. FG R466-056



0833 1546 421391 5087156 Good fix for Hairdo Vent. FG R466-057
0838 Highlights are on.
0840 1546 421391 5087156 Good fix for Hairdo Vent. Suave stopped at 0841. Another good fix 1391 and 7157.
0842 421391 5087156 Grabbing "hairdo" for collection and will put it in the starboard side of the BioBox.

Stuffing the pile into the box and counted millions and millions of organisms. Done with the collection at 0900.

FG R466-058

Biosample R466-8

0900 421391 5087156 Going back to the hole where the "hairdo" was taken and doing another SUAVE. SUAVE #6 started at 0904. T 14.8C, H2S 200 Ámol, Mn 15 Ámol, Fe 10 Ámol, average temp of 13.5C, stopped at 0913. SUAVE


0914 Attempting to stuff the rest of the worms into the BioBox.
0922 1547 421392 5087136 Moving to Phoenix, at Phoenix Vent 0924. We are on the NW side and facing SE (127).
0931 Removing one worm from the basket because it is blocking the view. Frame grab with the sit camera. FG R466-059
0934 We are going to remove a few more worms so that we can see in front of us.

FG R466-060
0939 Just hanging out watching biology in action at the base of Phoenix.

Highlight video is on; watching the battle of the worms.

FG R466-061
1000 421392 5087136 SUAVE #7, started, below the worms. Trying to get a good spot at Phoenix Vent. Starting at 1008. Max. T=20C. SUAVE


1024 SUAVE #8 started and now at the worms

themselves, ended at 1039.

Max. T=15C.



FG R466-062

1033 FG R466-063
1044 SUAVE #9 at the "frisky boys". Max. T=6C. SUAVE

R 466-12

FG R466-064

1057 SUAVE #10 slightly higher up in Community II; Hdg. 145. Max. T=8C. SUAVE


1107 1546 Finished SUAVE and now

taking temperature measurements on different sulfide worms.

1133 1546 421388 5087135 Video of new site just to the left of where SUAVE #10 was. To the left of Mkr-2.
1155 1546 421388 5087135 Hdg 210. Can see Marker 2 in background. Starting first SUAVE #11 (first SUAVE at this second site). No fauna here (Community 0). Max.. T=4.2C. SUAVE


1205 421388 5087135 Finished SUAVE and prepping to SUAVE again--#12 on two sulfide worms. Started at 1209. SUAVE


1218 Terminating SUAVE. Max.. T=6.1C.
1221 Resetting Science STS.
1225 1545 Found another spot to SUAVE.
1230 Video taping sulfide worms. Community I. FG R466-065

FG R466-066

1238 1545 FG R466-067
1244 1545 Finished video of sulfide worms. Positioning arm for next SUAVE.
1246 421388 5087135 Beginning SUAVE #13, 2 m stbd. of Marker 2, hdg. 089. SUAVE


1258 End SUAVE #13, Max.. T=80C.
1300 1545 Moving arm into position for next SUAVE.
1303 421388 5087135 Starting SUAVE #14. SUAVE


1312 End SUAVE #14. Max. T=24C.
1314 Moving arm into position for SUAVE #15. Begin SUAVE #15 at 1316. SUAVE


1326 421388 5087135 End SUAVE #15. Max. T=3C. Moving probe to next spot. Begin SUAVE #16 at 1329. SUAVE


1332 Power cable was kicked out of the transformer and we lost power to everything on sub/cage.
1337 1500 SUAVE back on line. But, SUAVE #16 was essentially aborted.
1343 Back on bottom, anhydride mound, heading NE to Inferno Vent
1344 Passing starboard side of Phoenix
1347 At Inferno, see Hobo.
1356 1546 Reconnaissance
1406 1545 Videoing sulfide worms at Inferno.
1417 Bad fix SUAVE #17 at South side of Inferno on palm worms. SUAVE


1425 End of SUAVE #17. Max. T=5.5C.
1442 1546 Trying to get a gas tight sample at little onion bulb to the right and below the Embley VEMCO.
1445 Bad fix Gas tight #6 port at Inferno Vent at top of black beehive spire on south side, hdg 350, near VEMCO Gas Tight


1446 421395 5087162 Gas tight #7 starboard side at Inferno Vent at top of black beehive spire on south side, hdg 350, near VEMCO Gas Tight


1454 1545 421392 5087136 Looking for Hell Vent
1455 1545 421373 5087136 At Hell Vent to scan sulfide worms
1505 1546 421373 5087136 SUAVE #18 at Hell Vent at leading edge of Porkchop near sulfide worms near diffuse flow, hdg 355. SUAVE


FG R466-069

FG R466-070

FG R466-071

1517 1546 421373 5087136 SUAVE #18 complete. Max T=16C, H2S 1.18 mol, Mn 70 Ámol, Fe 90 Ámol
1523 1546 421373 5087136 SUAVE #19 at Hell Vent at back of Porkchop near sulfide worms again. Watching worms fight. SUAVE


1535 1546 SUAVE #19 complete. Max T=19C, H2S 470 Ámol, Mn 60 Ámol, Fe 87 Ámol.
1545 1546 421373 5087136 SUAVE #20 at Hell Vent at bone of Porkchop near sulfide and palm worms. SUAVE


1557 1546 SUAVE #20 complete. Max T=19C, H2S 470 Ámol, Mn 45 Ámol, Fe 85 Ámol. FG R466-072
1605 1546 421373 5087136 SUAVE #21 at Hell Vent in group of palm worms. SUAVE


1615 1546 SUAVE #21 complete. Max T=20C, H2S 650 Ámol, Mn 75 Ámol, Fe 90 Ámol.
1619 1546 421375 5087135 Surveying Hell Vent for Niskin deployment.
1623 1542 Closing Niskin at Hell Vent in buoyant plume at top of triple chimney, top of chimney at 1542 m. Niskin


1626 1544 421374 5087135 Setting up to begin line for Imagenex and Digital Still Camera.
1629 1538 421374 5087150
1631 1538 421367 5087145
1632 1546 421362

5087145 Hdg 93, turning on Digital Still Camera, going up by 1 m from 1546, taking picture(s) each meter every 15 seconds to 1536 m.
1639 1536 421366 5087143 Stopped recording video, holding position and changing exposure of DSC to 75, going down by 1 m from 1536 taking picture(s) each meter every 15-30 seconds to bottom.
1646 1544 421358 5087145 Holding position and changing exposure of DSC to 100, same as before but seems to take longer between shots, up from 1544.
1658 1536 421375 5087140 Holding position and changing exposure of DSC to 50 - having trouble firing- got it. Taking pictures every 15 seconds, now going down water column - more trouble.
1709 1541 421381 5087164? Fiddling with DSC - forget it.
1711 1540 ROPOS going back to cage.
1739 920 Playing with DSC on way up.
1801 500 ROPOS into cage.
1830 ROPOS on deck.

Dive R467

Dive Map

Dive Summary: Dive R467 began with a search for the elevator that was deployed before the dive. The elevator was located and next the search was on for the extensometers deployed on the North Rift Zone. They were located remarkably quickly and all five extensometers were loaded into the tubes on the elevator. An Imagenex survey of the extensometer deployment area was conducted, followed by a search for the 91 Vent. What was believed to be the 91 Vent was located over 50 meters to the west of the original target. The site was named Bob Vent. Suave and biology samples were collected at Bob Vent.

Times are UTM (local PDT +7 hours)
Region, Field,


Dive Begin Dive End Tasks
Axial Seamount

North Rift Zone

Date (PDT):

Sept. 5, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 5, 1998

Julian Day 248

Time off deck:


Time on bottom:


Date (PDT):

Sept. 5, 1998

Date (UTM):

Sept. 6, 1998

Julian Day 249

Time off bottom:


Time on deck:


Total dive time:

20 hr 51 min

Total bottom time:

18 hr 07 min

Deploy elevator

Recover extensometers at North Rift

Imagenex survey of North Rift area 1 - 2 nautical miles North of the caldera.

Search for "91 Vent" found by camera tow in 1991 and seen again in 1996

ROPOS configuration:

Digital still camera mounted lower forward on port bumper

Imagenex scanning sonar mounted lower inside of port bumper

Biobox mounted lower center work area

Photosea 1000A 35 mm camera and strobe mounted side-by-side on upper center of bumper on stbd

SUAVE mounted port side interior; sensor on stbd arm

5 liter Niskin bottle mounted on upper stbd bumper bar

2 gas tight bottles with intake on stbd arm: #5 on port ,black tape, #2 on stbd

Claw on port (5 function) arm

Claw on starboard (7 function) arm









Comments Frame grabs, photos and samples
0820 421200 5096700 Elevator launched.
0943 421650 5096600 ROPOS launched.
1015 421189 5096647 Elevator fix.
1057 1266 Jellyfish.
1105 1416 Another jellyfish.
1110 1500 Hdg 200, first task is to find elevator
1116 1578 Gauge check, SUAVE calibration started at 1115.
1117 1575 ROPOS out of cage.
1118 1574 Tether visible.