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TAO Refereed publications
Last updated: May 14, 2014

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2014
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Cai,  W., S. Borlace, M. Lengaigne, P. van Rensch, M. Collins, G. Vecchi, A. Timmermann, A. Santoso, M. J. McPhaden, L. Wu, M. England, E. Guilyardi, and F.-F. Jin, 2014: Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming. Nature Climate Change, 4, 111–116. doi:10.1038/nclimate2100.

Drenkard, E. and K. B. Karnuaskas, 2014: Strengthening of the Pacific equatorial undercurrent in the SODA Reanalysis: Mechanisms, ocean dynamics, and implications. J. Climate, 47, 2405-2416.

England, M. H., S. McGregor, P. Spence, G. A. Meehl, A. Timmermann, W. Cai, A. Sen Gupta, M. J. McPhaden, A. Purich, and A. Santoso, 2014: Recently intensified Pacific Ocean wind-­‐driven circulation and the ongoing warming hiatus, Nature Climate Change, 4, 222–227. doi:10.1038/nclimate2106.

Lübbecke, J. F. and M. J. McPhaden, 2014: Assessing the 21st century shift in ENSO variability in terms of the Bjerknes stability index. J. Climate,27, 2577-2587. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00438.1.

Maes, C. and T. J. O'Kane, 2014: Seasonal variations of the upper ocean salinity stratification in the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Sutton, A. J. R. A. Feely, C. L. Sabine, M. J. McPhaden, T. Takahashi, F. P. Chavez, G. E. Friederich, and J. T. Mathis, 2014: Natural variability and anthropogenic change in equatorial Pacific surface ocean pCO2 and pH. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 28, 131–145.  doi:10.1002/2013GB004679.

Wen, C., A. Kumar, Y. Xue, and M. J. McPhaden, 2014: Understanding Causes for Change in ENSO Characteristics after 1999: An oceanic perspective. J. Climate, in press.

2013
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Balmaseda, M. A., K. E. Trenberth, and E. Källén, 2013: Distinctive climate signals in reanalysis of global ocean heat content. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1754-1759, doi:10.1002/grl.50382.

Balmaseda, M. A., K. Mogensen, and A. T. Weaver, 2013: Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORAS4. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc, 139, 1132-1161, doi: 10.1002/qj.2063

Hasson, A., T. Delcroix, and J. Boutin, 2013: Formation and variability of the South Pacific Sea Surface Salinity maximum in recent decades, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20367

Kumar, A. and Z. Z. Hu, 2013: Interannual and interdecadal variability of ocean temperature along the equatorial Pacific in conjunction with ENSO. Clim. Dyn. doi 10.1007/s00382-013-1721-0.

Messié, M. & Chavez, F. P., 2013: Physical-biological synchrony in the global ocean associated with recent variability in the central and western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 118 (8), 3782-3794, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20278.

Moum, J. N., A. Perlin, J. D. Nash, and M. J. McPhaden, 2013: Ocean mixing controls seasonal sea surface cooling in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. Nature, 500, 64-67.

Prakash, S., C. Mahesh  and R. M. Gairola, 2013: Comparison of TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)-3B43 version 6 and 7 products with rain gauge data from ocean buoys, Remote Sensing Letters, 4, 677-685. doi.org/10.1080/2150704X.2013.783248.

Praveen Kumar, B.,  J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, V.S.N. Murty, M.J. McPhaden,  M.F. Cronin, F. Pinsard and K. Gopala Reddy, 2013: TropFlux wind stresses over the tropical oceans: evaluation and comparison with other products. Clim. Dynamics, 40, 2049-2071, doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1455-4.

Santoso, A., S. McGregor, F.-F. Jin, W. Cai, M. H. England, S.-I. An, M. J. McPhaden, and E. Guilyardi, 2013: Late 20 Century Emergence of El Niño Propagation Asymmetry and Future Projections.  Nature, 504, 126-130.

Ueki, I. and K. Ando, 2013: Detection of Pacific tropical water variability by taut-line moorings in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Oceanogr., 69, 429-441.

Xie, S. P., 2013: Unequal equinoxes. Nature, 500, 33-34.

Zhang, R.-H., F. Zheng, J. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, 2013: A successful real-time forecast of the 2010–11 La Niña event. Sci. Rep. 3, 1108; doi: 10.1038/srep01108.


2012
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Bingham, F. M., G. R. Foltz, and M. J. McPhaden, 2012: Characteristics of the seasonal cycle of surface layer salinity in the global ocean. Ocean Science, 8, 915-929.

Blockley, E. W., M. J. Martin, and P. Hyder, 2012: Validation of FOAM near-surface ocean current forecasts using Lagrangian drifting buoys, Ocean Sci., 8, 551-565, doi:10.5194/os-8-551-2012.

Cronin, M.F., R.A. Weller, R.S. Lampitt, and U. Send, 2012: Ocean reference stations. In Earth Observation, R.B. Rustamov and S.E. Salahova (eds.), InTech, ISBN: 978-953-307-973-8.

Drushka, K., J. Sprintall, S. T. Gille, and S. Wijffels, 2012: In situ observations of Madden–Julian Oscillation mixed layer dynamics in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, 25, 2306–2328, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00203.1.

Gierach, M. M, T. Lee, D. Turk, and M. J. McPhaden, 2012: Biological Response to the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño events in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett.,39, L10602, doi:10.1029/2012GL051103.

Inoue, R., R.-C. Lien, and J. N. Moum, 2012: Modulation of equatorial turbulence by a tropical instability wave, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007767.

Karnauskas, K. B., G. C. Johnson, R. Murtugudde, 2012: An Equatorial Ocean Bottleneck in Global Climate Models. J. Climate, 25, 343–349.

Kumar, A. M. Chen, L. Zhang, W. Wang, Y. Xue, C. Wen, L Marx, and B. Huang, 2012: An Analysis of the Non-stationarity in the Bias of Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts for the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) Version 2. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3003-3016, doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00335.1.

McPhaden, M. J., 2012: A 21st Century Shift in the Relationship between ENSO SST and Warm Water Volume Anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09706, doi:10.1029/2012GL051826.

Messié, M. & Chavez, F. P., 2012: A global analysis of ENSO synchrony: the oceans biological response to physical forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09001, doi:10.1029/2012JC007938.

Morrissey, M. L., H. J. Diamond, M. J. McPhaden, H. P. Freitag, and J. S. Greene, 2012: An Investigation of the Consistency of TAO/TRITON Buoy-mounted Capacitance Rain Gauges. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 29, 834-845, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00171.1.

Praveen Kumar, B., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, V.S.N. Murty and M.J. McPhaden, 2012:   TropFlux:  Air-Sea Fluxes for the Global Tropical Oceans: Description and evaluation. Clim. Dynamics, 38, 1521-1543, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1115-0.

Xue, Y., M. A., Balmaseda, T. Boyer, N. Ferry, S. Good, I. Ishikawa, A. Kumar, M. Rienecker, T. Rosati, Y. Yin, 2012: A comparative analysis of upper ocean heat content variability from an ensemble of operational ocean reanalyses. J. Climate. 25, 6905-6929, doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00542.1


2011
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Aretxabaleta, A. L., and  K. W. Smith, 2011: Analyzing state-dependent model–data comparison in multi-regime systems. Comput. Geosci., doi:10.1007/s10596-011-9229-3.

Atlas, R., R. N. Hoffman, J. Ardizzone, S. M. Leidner, J. C. Jusem, D. K. Smith, and D. Gombos, 2011: A cross-calibrated, multiplatform ocean surface wind velocity product for meteorological and oceanographic applications. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 157–174. doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2946.1.

Delcroix T., G. Alory, S. Cravatte, T. Corrége, and M. J. McPhaden, 2011:  A gridded sea surface salinity data set for the tropical Pacific with sample applications (1950-2008).  Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 58, 38-48.

Giese, B. S., and S. Ray, 2011: El Niño variability in simple ocean data assimilation (SODA), 1871–2008, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C02024, doi:10.1029/2010JC006695.

McPhaden, M. J., T. Lee, and D. McClurg, 2011: El Niño and its relationship to changing background conditions in the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15709, doi:10.1029/2011GL048275.

Moum, J. N., J. D. Nash, W. D. Smyth, 2011: Narrowband Oscillations in the Upper Equatorial Ocean. Part I: Interpretation as Shear Instabilities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 397-411. doi:10.1175/2010JPO4450.1

Nurhati, I. S., K. M. Cobb, and E. Di Lorenzo, 2011: Decadal-Scale SST and salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific: Signatures of natural and anthropogenic climate change. J. Climate, 24, 3294-3308, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3852.1

Singh, A., T. Delcroix, and S. Cravatte (2011), Contrasting the flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation using sea surface salinity observations, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C06016, doi:10.1029/2010JC006862.

Smyth, W. D., J. N. Moum, J. D. Nash, 2011: Narrowband Oscillations in the Upper Equatorial Ocean. Part II: Properties of Shear Instabilities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 412–428. doi:10.1175/2010JPO4451.1

Turk, D., C. S. Meinen, D. Antoine, M. J. McPhaden, and M. R. Lewis, 2011: Implications of changing El Niño patterns for biological dynamics in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23603, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049674.

Zhang, X., B. Cornuelle, and D. Roemmich, 2011: Adjoint sensitivity of the Niño-3 surface temperature to wind forcing. J. Climate, 24, 4480-4493, doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3917.1.


2010
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Balmaseda, M.A., Y. Fujii, O. Alves, T. Lee, M. Rienecker, T. Rosati, D. Stammer, Y. Xue, H. Freeland, M.J. McPhaden, L. Goddard, and C. Coelho, 2010: Role of the Ocean Observing System in an end-to-end seasonal forecasting system. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Bingham, F., G. R. Foltz, and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Seasonal Cycles of Surface Layer Salinity in the Pacific Ocean. Ocean Sci., 6, 775-787, doi:10.5194/os-6-775-2010.

Chang, Y.-T., T. Yung Tang, S.-Y. Chao, M.-H. Chang, D. S. Ko, Y. J. Yang, W.-D. Liang, and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Mooring observations and numerical modeling of thermal structures in the South China Sea, J. Geophys., 115, C10022, doi:10.1029/2010JC006293.

Gulev, S.K., S.A. Josey, M. Bourassa, L.-A. Breivik, M.F. Cronin, C. Fairall, S. Gille, E.C. Kent, C.M. Lee, M.J. McPhaden, P.M.S. Monteiro, U. Schuster, S.R. Smith, K.E. Trenberth, D. Wallace, and S.D. Woodruff, 2010: Surface Energy and CO2 fluxes in the global ocean-atmosphere-ice system. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Huang, B., Y. Xue, D. Zhang, A. Kumar, and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: The NCEP GODAS Ocean Analysis of the Tropical Pacific  Mixed Layer Heat Budget on Seasonal to Interannual Time Scales. J. Climate, 23, 4901-4925, doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00629.1

Karnauskas, K.B., R. Murtugudde, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2010: Observing the Galápagos–EUC Interaction: Insights and Challenges. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2768–2777, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4461.

Lampitt, R. S., P. Favali, C. R. Barnees, M. J. Church, M. F. Cronin, K. L. Hill, Y. Kaneda, D. M. Karl, A. H. Knap, M. J. McPhaden, K. A. Nittis, I. G. Priede, J.-F. Rolin, U. Send, C.-C. Teng, T. W. Trull, D. W. R. Wallace, R. A. Weller, 2010: In situ sustained Eulerian observatories. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J. Harrison, D. E., and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Lee, T., and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14603, doi:10.1029/2010GL044007.

Lucas, L. E., D. E. Waliser, and R. Murtugudde, 2010: Mechanisms governing sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean associated with the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C05012, doi:10.1029/2009JC005450.

Luo, J.J., R. Zhang, S.K. Behera, Y. Masumoto, F.F. Jin, R. Lukas, and T. Yamagata, 2010: Interaction between El Niño and Extreme Indian Ocean Dipole. J. Climate, 23, 726–742.

McPhaden, M.J., K. Ando, B. Bourlès, H.P. Freitag, R. Lumpkin, Y. Masumoto, V.S.N. Murty, P. Nobre, M. Ravichandran, J. Vialard, D. Vousden, and W. Yu, 2010: The global tropical moored buoy array. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

McPhaden, M. J., A. J. Busalacchi, and D. L. T. Anderson, 2010: A TOGA retrospective. Oceanography, 23, 86-103.

Mickett, J.B., Y.L. Serra, M.F. Cronin, and M.H. Alford, 2010: Resonant Forcing of Mixed Layer Inertial Motions by Atmospheric Easterly Waves in the Northeast Tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 401–416.

Radenac, M.-H, P. E. Plimpton, A. Lebourges-Dhaussy, L. Commien, and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Impact of environmental forcing on the acoustic backscattering strength in the equatorial Pacific: diurnal, lunar, intraseasonal, and interannual variability. Deep-Sea Res., 57, 1314-1328.

Reynolds, R. W. and D. B. Chelton, 2010: Comparison of daily sea surface temperature analyses for 2007-2008. J. Climate, in press.

Rienecker, M.M., T. Awaji, M. Balmaseda, B. Barnier, D. Behringer, M. Bell, M. Bourassa, P. Brasseur, J. Carton, J. Cummings, L.-A. Breivik, E. Dombrowsky, C. Fairall, N. Ferry, G. Forget, H. Freeland, S.M. Griffies, K. Haines, D.E. Harrison, P. Heimbach, M. Kamachi, E. Kent, T. Lee, P.-Y. Le Traon, M. McPhaden, M.J. Martin, P. Oke, M.D. Palmer, E. Remy, T. Rosati, A. Schiller, D.M. Smith, D. Snowden, D. Stammer, K.E. Trenberth, and Y. Xue, 2010: Synthesis and assimilation systems—Essential adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Saha, S. et al, 2010: The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1015-1057.

Send, U., R. A. Weller, D. Wallace, F. Chavez, R. Lampitt, T. Dickey, M. Honda, K. Nittis, R. Lukas, M. McPhaden, and R. Feely, 2010: OceanSITES.  In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.79.

Xue, Y., O. Alves, M.A. Balmaseda, N. Ferry, S. Good, I. Ishikawa, T. Lee, M.J. McPhaden, K.A. Peterson, and M. Rienecker, 2010: Ocean state estimation for global ocean monitoring: ENSO and beyond ENSO. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Zhang, X. and M.J. McPhaden, 2010: Interannual surface layer heat balance in the eastern equatorial Pacific and its relationship with local atmospheric forcing. J. Climate, 23, 4375–4394.


2009
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Balmaseda, M. A., et al., 2009: Ocean initialization for seasonal forecasts. Oceanography, 22, 154-159.

Balmaseda, M., and D. Anderson, 2009: Impact of initialization strategies and observations on seasonal forecast skill. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01701, doi:10.1029/2008GL035561.

Bosc, C., T. Delcroix, and C. Maes, 2009: Barrier layer variability in the western Pacific warm pool from 2000 to 2007. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C06023, doi:10.1029/2008JC005187.

Bowman, K. P.,  C.R. Homeyer, and D.G. Stone, 2009: A comparison of oceanic precipitation estimates in the tropics and subtropics, J. Appl. Meteor. Climat., 48, 1335-1344.

Clarke, C., et al, 2009: An overview of global ocean observing Systems relevant to GODAE.  Oceanography, 22, 22-33.

Cravatte, S.E., T. Delcroix, D. Zhang, M.J McPhaden, and J. Leloup, 2009: Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific warm pool. Clim. Dyn., 33, 565-589.

Cronin, M.F., and W.S. Kessler, 2009: Near-Surface Shear Flow in the Tropical Pacific Cold Tongue Front. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1200–1215.

Cummings, J. C., et al., 2009: Ocean data assimilation systems for GODAE. Oceanography, 22, 96-109.

Ding, H., N. S. Keenlyside, and M. Latif, 2009: Seasonal cycle in the upper equatorial Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09016, doi:10.1029/2009JC005418.

Grodsky, S.A., A. Bentamy, J.A. Carton, and R.T. Pinker, 2009: Intraseasonal Latent Heat Flux Based on Satellite Observations. J. Climate, 22, 4539–4556.

Harrison, D.E. and A.M. Chiodi, 2009: Pre and post 1997/1998 westerly wind events and equatorial Pacific cold tongue warming. J. Climate, 22, 568-581.

Hasegawa, T., K. Ando, K. Mizuno, and R. Lukas, 2009: Coastal upwelling along the North Coast of Papua New Guinea and SST cooling over the Pacific warm pool: A case study for the 2002/03 El Niño event. J. Oceanography, 65, 817-833.

Hernandez, F., et al., 2009: Validation and intercomparison studies within GODAE. Oceanography, 22, 128-143.

Jiang, C., L. Thompson, K.A. Kelly, and M.F. Cronin, 2009: The Roles of Intraseasonal Kelvin Waves and Tropical Instability Waves in SST Variability along the Equatorial Pacific in an Isopycnal Ocean Model. J. Climate, 22, 3470–3487.

Kara, A.B., C.N. Barron, and T.P. Boyer, 2009: Evaluations of SST climatologies in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C02021, doi:10.1029/2008JC004909.

Le Traon, Y., et al, 2009: Data assembly and processing for operational oceanography: 10 years of achievements.  Oceanography, 22, 56-69.

Masuda, S., T. Awaji, T. Toyoda, Y. Shikama, and Y. Ishikawa, 2009: Temporal evolution of the equatorial thermocline associated with the 1991–2006 ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C03015, doi:10.1029/2008JC004953.

Matsumoto, K. and K. Ando, 2009: Use of cyanobacterial pigments to characterize the ocean surface mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool. Journal of Marine Systems, 75, 245-252.

McPhaden, M. J., and X. Zhang, 2009: Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13703, doi:10.1029/2009GL038774.

Moum, J. N., R.-C. Lien, A. Perlin, J. D. Nash, M. C. Gregg and P. J.Wiles, 2009: Sea surface cooling at the equator by subsurface mixing in tropical instability waves.  Nature Geoscience, 2, 761-765.

Moum, J.N. and J.D. Nash, 2009: Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26, 317-336.

Oke, P. R., et al., 2009: Observing system evaluations using GODAE systems. Oceanography, 22, 144-153.

Palmer, M.D., and K. Haines, 2009: Estimating Oceanic Heat Content Change Using Isotherms. J. Climate, 22, 4953–4969.

Perez, R.C. and W.S. Kessler, 2009: Three-Dimensional Structure of Tropical Cells in the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 27-49.

Roberts, M.J., A. Clayton, M.E. Demory, J. Donners, P.L. Vidale, W. Norton, L. Shaffrey, D.P. Stevens, I. Stevens, R.A. Wood, and J. Slingo, 2009: Impact of Resolution on the Tropical Pacific Circulation in a Matrix of Coupled Models. J. Climate, 22, 2541–2556.

Roundy, P.E., and J.R. Kravitz, 2009: The Association of the Evolution of Intraseasonal Oscillations to ENSO Phase. J. Climate, 22, 381–395.

Shinoda, T., G. N. Kiladis, and P. E. Roundy, 2009: Statistical representation of equatorial waves and tropical instability waves in the Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Res., 94, 37-44.

Silvestre Aguilar-Martinez and William W. Hsieh, 2009: Forecasts of Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures by Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression. Intl. J. Oceanogr., Vol. 2009, Article ID 167239, doi:10.1155/2009/167239.

Wallcraft, A. J., A. B. Kara, C. N. Barron, E. J. Metzger, R. L. Pauley, and M. A. Bourassa, 2009: Comparisons of monthly mean 10 m wind speeds from satellites and NWP products over the global ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D16109,   doi:10.1029/2008JD011696.

Wunsch, C., P. Heimbach, R. M. Ponte, I. Fukumori and the ECCO-GODAE Consortium Members, 2009: The global circulation of the ocean estimated by the ECCO Consortium, Oceanography, 22, 88-103.

Yuan, D., 2009: Interannual horizontal heat advection in the surface mixed layer over the equatorial Pacific Ocean: assimilation versus TAO analysis. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 3–15.


2008
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Bentamy, A., 2008: Characterization of ASCAT measurements based on buoy and QuikSCAT wind vector observations. Ocean Sci. Discuss., 5, 77-101.

Brunke, M. A., X. Zeng, V. Misra, and A. Beljaars, 2008: Integration of a prognostic sea surface skin temperature scheme into weather and climate models, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21117, doi:10.1029/2008JD010607.

Castruccio, F., J. Verron, L. Gourdeau, et al., 2008: Joint altimetric and in-situ data assimilation using the GRACE mean dynamic topography: a 1993-1998 hindcast experiment in the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Ocean Dyn., 58, 43-63.

Chu , P.C., 2008: Probability distribution function of the upper equatorial Pacific current speeds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12606, 10.1029/2008GL033669.

Cifelli, R., S.W. Nesbitt, S.A. Rutledge, W.A. Petersen, and S. Yuter, 2008: Diurnal Characteristics of Precipitation Features over the Tropical East Pacific: A Comparison of the EPIC and TEPPS Regions. J. Climate, 21, 4068-4086.

Fairall, C.W., T. Uttal, D. Hazen, J. Hare, M.F. Cronin, N. Bond, and D.E. Veron, 2008: Observations of Cloud, Radiation, and Surface Forcing in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific. J. Climate, 21, 655-673.

Hasegawa, T., K. Hanawa, Y.M. Tourre, and W.B. White, 2008: Absence of propagating upper-ocean heat content anomalies in the eastern tropical South Pacific after ENSO events. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L09607, doi:10.1029/2007GL033065.

Hoteit, I., B. Cornuelle, V. Thierry, and D. Stammer, 2008: Impact of Resolution and Optimized ECCO Forcing on Simulations of the Tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 25, 131-147.

Jiang, C., L. Thompson, and K. A. Kelly, 2008: Equatorial influence of QuikSCAT winds in an isopycnal ocean model compared to NCEP2 winds. Ocean Modelling, 24, 65-71.

Kara, A.B., A.J. Wallcraft, and M.A. Bourassa, 2008: Air-sea stability effects on the 10 m winds over the global ocean: Evaluations of air-sea flux algorithms. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C04009, doi:10.1029/2007JC004324.

Kara, A.B., A.J. Wallcraft, P.J. Martin, and E.P. Chassignet, 2008: Performance of mixed layer models in simulating SST in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02020, doi:10.1029/2007JC004250.

Kara, A.B., E.J. Metzger, H.E. Hurlburt, A.J. Wallcraft, and E.P. Chassignet, 2008: Multistatistics metric evaluation of ocean general circulation model sea surface temperature: Application to 0.08 degree Pacific Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C12018, doi:10.1029/2008JC004878

Kawamura, H., H. Qin, and K. Ando, 2008: In-situ Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Variations and Near-Surface Thermal Structure in the Tropical Hot Event of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. J. Oceanogr., 64, 847-857.

Lagerloef, G., F.R. Colomb, D. Le Vine, F. Wentz, S. Yueh, C. Ruf, J. Lilly, J. Gunn, Y. Chao, A. deCharon, G. Feldman, and C. Swift, 2008: The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission: Designed to Meet the Salinity Remote-Sensing Challenge. Oceanography, 21, 68-81.

Lee, T. and M.J. McPhaden, 2008: Decadal phase change in large-scale sea level and winds in the Indo-Pacific region at the end of the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L01605, doi:10.1029/2007GL032419.

Lien, R.C., E.A. D'Asaro, and C.E. Menkes, 2008: Modulation of equatorial turbulence by tropical instability waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L24607, doi:10.1029/2008GL035860

Maes, C., 2008: On the ocean salinity stratification observed at the eastern edge of the equatorial Pacific warm pool, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C03027, doi:10.1029/2007JC004297.

McPhaden, M.J., 2008: Evolution of the 2006-07 El Niño: The Role of Intraseasonal to Interannual Time Scale Dynamics. Adv. Geosci., 14, 219-230.

McPhaden, M.J., M.F. Cronin, and D.C. McClurg, 2008: Meridional structure of the surface mixed layer temperature balance on seasonal time scales in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 21, 3240-3260.

Nagura, M., K. Ando, and K. Mizuno, 2008: Pausing of the ENSO cycle: A case study from 1998 to 2002. J. Climate, 21, 342-363.

Oke, P.R., G.G. Brassington, D.A. Griffin, et al., 2008: The Bluelink ocean data assimilation system (BODAS). Ocean Modelling, 21, 46-70.

Qin, H, H. Kawamura, F. Sakaida, and K. Ando, 2008: A case study of the tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) using a geostationary meteorological satellite and the TAO/TRITON mooring array. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08045, doi:10.1029/2007JC004640.

Serra, Y.L., G. Kiladis, and M.F. Cronin, 2008: Horizontal andVertical Structure of Easterly Waves in the Pacific ITCZ. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 1266-1283.

Shinoda, T., P.E. Roundy, and G.N. Kiladis, 2008: Variability of Intraseasonal Kelvin Waves in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 921-944.

Stramma, L., G.C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, V. Mohrholz, 2008: Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans. Science, 320, 655-658.

Sudre J. and R.A. Morrow, 2008: Global surface currents: a high-resolution product for investigating ocean dynamics. Ocean Dyn., 58, 101-118.

Ueyama, R. and C. Deser, 2008: A Climatology of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Surface Wind Variations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean based on the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Moored Buoy Array. J. Climate, 21, 593-607.

Zhang, X. and M.J. McPhaden, 2008: Eastern equatorial Pacific forcing of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate, 21, 6070-6079.


2007
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Agarwal, N., R. Sharma, S.K. Basu, A. Sarkar, and V.K. Agarwal, 2007: Evaluation of relative performance of QuikSCAT and NCEP re-analysis winds through simulations by an OGCM. Deep-Sea Res., 54, 1311-1328.

Balmaseda, M., D. Dee, A. Vidard, and D.L.T. Anderson, 2007: A Multivariate Treatment of Bias for Sequential Data Assimilation: Application to the Tropical Oceans. Quarterly Journal- Royal Meteorological Society, 2007, 133, 167-179.

Bellucci A., S. Masina, and P. Dipietro, 2007: Using temperature-salinity relations in a global ocean implementation of a Multivariate data assimilation scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 3785-3807.

Cheng, W., M.J. McPhaden, D. Zhang, and E.J. Metzger, 2007: Recent changes in the Pacific subtropical cells inferred from an eddy resolving ocean circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 1340-1356.

Clayson, C.A. and D. Weitlich, 2007: Variability of tropical diurnal sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 334-352.

Cravatte, S., G. Madec, T. Izumo, C. Menkes, and A. Bozec, 2007: Progress in the 3-D circulation of the eastern equatorial Pacific in a climate ocean model. Ocean Modelling, 17, 28-48.

Delcroix. T., S. Cravatte, and M.J. McPhaden, 2007: Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970. J. Geophys. Res., 112(C3), C03012, doi:10.1029/2006JC003801.

DeMoss, J. D. and K. P. Bowman, 2007: Changes in TRMM rainfall due to the orbit boost estimated from buoy rain gauge data. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1598-1607.

Friedrichs, M.A.M., J.A. Dusenberry, L.A. Anderson, et al., 2007: Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: Role of multiple planktonic groups. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08001, doi:10.1029/2006JC003852.

Gorgues, T., C. Menkes, O. Aumont, Y. Dandonneau, G. Madec, and K. Rodgers, 2007:
Indonesian throughflow control of the eastern equatorial Pacific biogeochemistry. Geophys.
Res. Lett., 34
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Hackert, E., J. Ballabrera-Poy, A.J. Busalacchi, R.-H. Zhang, and R. Murtugudde, 2007: Comparison between 1997 and 2002 El Niño events: Role of initial state versus forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C01005, doi:10.1029/2006JC003724.

Hasegawa, T., T. Yasuda, and K. Hanawa, 2007: Generation mechanism of quasidecadal variability of upper ocean heat content in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08012, 10.1029/2006JC003755.

Hasegawa, T. and K. Hanawa, 2007: Upper ocean heat content and atmospheric anomaly fields in the off-equatorial North Pacific related to ENSO. J. Oceanography, 63, 561-572.

Ingleby, B. and M. Huddleston, 2007: Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles - Historical and real-time data. J. Mar. Sys., 65, 158-175.

Jochum M., M.F. Cronin, W.S. Kessler, D. Shea, 2007: Observed horizontal temperature advection by tropical instability waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09604, doi:10.1029/2007GL029416.

Johnson, E.S., F. Bonjean, G.E.S. Lagerloef, and J.T. Gunn, 2007: Validation and error analysis of OSCAR sea-surface currents. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24,688-701.

Kara, A.B. and C.N. Barron, 2007: Fine--resolution satellite--based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C05041, doi:10.1029/2006JC004021.

Kashino, Y., I. Ueki, Y. Kuroda, and A. Purwandani, 2007: Ocean variability north of New Guinea derived from TRITON buoy data. J. Oceanogr., 63, 545-559.

Keenlyside, N.S., M. Latif, and A. Dürkop, 2007: On Sub-ENSO Variability. J. Climate, 20, 3452-3469.

Kim, S.B., T. Lee, and I. Fukumori, 2007: Mechanisms Controlling the Interannual Variation of Mixed Layer Temperature Averaged over the Niño-3 Region. J. Climate, 20, 3822-3843.

Lyman, J.M., G.C. Johnson, and W.S. Kessler, 2007: Distinct 17- and 33-day tropical instability waves in subsurface observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 855-872.

Ma, B.B. and J.A. Nystuen, 2007: Detection of rainfall events using underwater passive aquatic sensors and air-sea temperature changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 3599-3612.

Maloney, E.D. and S.K. Esbensen, 2007: Satellite and Buoy Observations of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability in the Tropical Northeast Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 3-19.

Matthews, A.J., P. Singhruck, and K.J. Heywood, 2007: Deep Ocean Impact of a Madden-Julian Oscillation Observed by Argo Floats. Science, 318, 1765-1769.

Saba, V.S. et al, 2007: The effect of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on the reproductive frequency of eastern Pacific turtles. J. Appl. Ecol., 44, 395-404.

Salihoglu, B. and E.E. Hofmann, 2007: Simulations of phytoplankton species and carbon production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean 1. Model configuration and ecosystem dynamics. J. Mar. Res., 65, 219-273.

Salihoglu, B. and E.E. Hofmann, 2007: Simulations of phytoplankton species and carbon production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean 2. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes. J. Mar. Res., 65, 275-300.

Seiki, A., and Y.N. Takayabu, 2007: Westerly Wind Bursts and Their Relationship with Intraseasonal Variations and ENSO. Part I: Statistics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 3325-3345.

Serra, Y.L., M.F. Cronin, and G.N. Kiladis, 2007: Sub-seasonal variance of surface meteorological parameters in buoy observations and reanalyses. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12708, doi:10.1029/2007GL029506.

Smith, K. W. and A. L. Aretxabaleta, 2007: Expectation-maximization analysis of spatial time series, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 14, 73–77.

Sun C.J., M.M. Rienecker, A. Rosati, et al., 2007: Comparison and sensitivity of ODASI ocean analyses in the Tropical Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 2242-2264.

Vidard, A., D.L.T. Anderson, and M. Balmaseda, 2007: Impact of Ocean Observation Systems on Ocean Analysis and Seasonal Forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 409-429.

Yu, L., 2007: Global variations in oceanic evaporation (1958-2005): The role of the changing wind speed. J. Climate, 20, 5376-5390.

Yu, L., R.A. Weller, 2007: Objectively Analyzed air-sea heat Fluxes (OAFlux) for the global ice-free oceans. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 527-539.


2006
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Barron, C.N. and A.B. Kara, 2006: Satellite--based daily SSTs over the global ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15603, doi:10.1029/2006GL026356.

Barron, C.N., A.B. Kara, P.J. Martin, R.C. Rhodes, and L.F. Smedstad, 2006: Description and application of the global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) with examination of vertical coordinate system choices. Ocean Modelling, 11, 347-375.

Behrenfeld, M.J. and E. Boss, 2006: Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass. J. Mar. Res., 64, 431-451.

Behrenfeld, M.J., K. Worthington, R.M. Sherrell, F.P. Chavez, P. Strutton, M.J. McPhaden, and D.M. Shea, 2006: Controls on tropical Pacific ocean productivity revealed through nutrient stress diagnostics, Nature, 442, 1025-1028.

Bennett, A.F., B.S. Chua, H.-E. Ngodock, D.E. Harrison, and M.J. McPhaden, 2006: Generalized inversion of the Gent-Cane model of the Tropical Pacific with Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) data. J. Mar. Res., 64, 1-42.

Bourras, D., 2006: Comparison of Five Satellite-Derived Latent Heat Flux Products to Moored Buoy Data. J. Climate, 19, 6291–6313.

Chang, P., T. Yamagata, P. Schopf, S.K. Behera, J. Carton, W.S. Kessler, G. Meyers, T. Qu, F. Schott, S. Shetye, and S.P. Xie, 2006: Climate Fluctuations of Tropical Coupled Systems—The Role of Ocean Dynamics. J. Climate, 19, 5122-5174.

Cronin, M.F., N.A. Bond, C.W. Fairall, and R.A. Weller, 2006: Surface cloud forcing in the east Pacific stratus deck/cold tongue/ITCZ complex. J. Climate, 19, 392-409.

Cronin, M.F., C. Fairall, and M.J. McPhaden, 2006: An assessment of buoy derived and numerical weather prediction surface heat fluxes in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06038, doi:10.1029/2005JC003324.

Feely, R.A., T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, M.J. McPhaden, C.E. Cosca, S.C. Sutherland and M.-E. Carr, 2006: Decadal Variability of the Air-Sea CO2 Fluxes in the  Equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C08S90, doi:10.1029/2005JC003129.

Gove, J.M., M.A. Merrifield, and R.E. Brainard, 2006: Temporal variability of current-driven upwelling at Jarvis Island. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C12011, doi:10.1029/2005JC003161.

Jochum, M. and R. Murtugudde, 2006: Temperature advection by tropical instability waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 592-605.

Kara, A.B., C.N. Barron, P.J. Martin, A.B. Kara, R.C. Rhodes, and L.F. Smedstad, 2006: Validation of interannual simulations from the 1/8 degree Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Ocean Modelling, 11, 376-398.

Kara, A.B. and H.E. Hurlburt, 2006: Daily inter--annual simulations of SST and MLD using atmospherically--forced OGCMs: Model evaluation in comparison to buoy time series. J. Mar. Sys., 62, 95-119.

Kawai, Y., H. Kawamura, S. Tanba, K. Ando, K. Yoneyama, and N. Nagahama, 2006: Validity of sea surface temperature observed with the TRITON buoy under diurnal heating conditions. J. Oceanogr., 62, 825-838.

Kessler, W.S., 2006: The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review.  Prog. Oceanogr., 69, 181-217.

Maes, C., K. Ando, T. Delcroix, W.S. Kessler, M.J. McPhaden, and D. Roemmich, 2006: Observed correlation of surface salinity, temperature and barrier layer at the eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024772.

McPhaden, M.J., S.E. Zebiak, and M.H. Glantz, 2006: ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science. Science, 314, 1740-1745.

McPhaden, M.J., X. Zhang, H.H. Hendon, and M.C. Wheeler, 2006: Large Scale Dynamics and MJO Forcing of ENSO Variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(16), L16702,
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Messie, M., M.H. Radenac, J. Lefevre, and P. Marchesiello, 2006: Chlorophyll blooms in the western Pacific at the end of the 1997-1998 El Niño: The role of the Kiribati Islands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14601, doi:10.1029/2006GL026033.

Philip, S. and G.J. van Oldenborgh, 2006: Shifts in ENSO coupling processes under global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11704, doi:10.1029/2006GL026196.

Roundy, P.E. and G.N. Kiladis, 2006: The observed relationship between the MJO and oceanic Kelvin waves during El Niño development. J. Climate, 19, 5253-5272.

Ryan, J.P., I. Ueki, Y. Chao, H. Zhang, P.S. Polito, and F.P. Chavez, 2006: Western Pacific modulation of large phytoplankton blooms in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 111, G02013, doi:10.1029/2005JG000084.

Schein, K.A. et al, 2006: The state of the climate 2005. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 87, S1-S102.

Tomita, H. and M. Kubota, 2006: An analysis of the accuracy of Japanese Ocean Flux data sets with Use of Remote sensing Observations (J-OFURO) satellite-derived latent heat flux using moored buoy data. J. Geophys. Res., 111, 07007, doi:10.1029/2005JC003013.

Wang, C. and P.C. Fiedler, 2006: ENSO variability and the eastern tropical Pacific: A review. Prog. Oceanogr., 69, 239-266.

Zhang, D., and M.J. McPhaden, 2006: Decadal variability of the shallow Pacific meridional overturning circulation: relation to tropical sea surface temperatures in observations and climate change models. Ocean Modelling, 15, 250-273.

Zhang, X. and M.J. McPhaden, 2006: Wind stress variations and interannual sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 19, 226-241.


2005
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Ando K., T. Matsumoto, T. Nagahama, I. Ueki, Y. Takatsuki, and Y. Kuroda, 2005: Drift characteristics of a moored conductivity-temperature sensor and correction of salinity data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22, 282-291.

Borovikov, A., M.M. Rienecker, C.L.Keppenne, and G.C. Johnson, 2005: Multivariate error covariance estimates by Monte Carlo simulation for assimilation studies in the Pacific Ocean. Monthly Weather Review, 133, 2310-2334.

Bourassa, M.A., R. Romero, S.R. Smith, and J.J. O’Brien, 2005: A new FSU winds climatology, J. Climate, 18, 3686-3698.

Bowman, K.P. 2005: Comparison of TRMM precipitation retrievals with rain gauge data from ocean buoys. J. Climate, 18, 178-190.

Bowman, K. P., J. C. Collier, G. R. North, Q. Wu, E. Ha, and J. Hardin, 2005: Diurnal cycle of tropical precipitation in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and ocean buoy rain gauge data. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005763.

Cibot, C., E. Maisonnave, L. Terray, and B. Dewitte, 2005: Mechanisms of tropical Pacific interannual-to-decadal variability in the ARPEGE/ORCA global coupled model, Clim. Dyn., 24, 823-842.

Delcroix, T., M.J. McPhaden, A. Dessier, and Y. Gouriou,  2005: Time and space scales for sea surface salinity in the tropical oceans. Deep-Sea Res., 52, 787-813.

deSzoeke, S.P., C.S. Bretherton, N.A. Bond, M.F. Cronin, and B. Morley, 2005: The mean structure of the east Pacific atmospheric boundary layer from cold tongue to ITCZ characterized by EPIC 95W observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 426-442.

Eisenman, I., L. Yu, and E. Tziperman, 2005: Westerly wind bursts: ENSO’s tail rather than the dog? J. Climate, 18, 5224-5238.

Garcés-Vargas, J., W. Schneider, R. Abarca del Río, R. Martínez, E. Zambrano, 2005: Inter-annual variability in the thermal structure of an oceanic time series station off Ecuador (1990-2003) associated with El Niño events. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 52, 1789-1805.

Grodsky, S.A., J.A. Carton, C. Provost, J. Servain, J.A. Lorenzzetti, and M.J. McPhaden, 2005: Tropical instability waves at 0°N, 23°W in the Atlantic: A case study using Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) mooring data. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C08010, doi:10.1029/2005JC002941.

Hendricks, M.B., M. L. Bender, B.A. Barnett, P. Strutton, and F.P. Chavez, 2005: Triple oxygen isotope composition of dissolved O2 in the equatorial Pacific: A tracer of mixing, production, and respiration. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C12021, doi:10.1029/2004JC002735.

Ishida, A., H. Mitsudera, Y. Kashino, and T. Kadokura, 2005:  Equatorial Pacific subsurface countercurrents in a high-resolution global ocean circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C07014, doi:10.1029/2003JC002210.

Izumo, T., 2005: The equatorial undercurrent, meridional overturning circulation, and their roles in mass and heat exchanges during El Niño events in the tropical Pacific ocean. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 110-123.

Jiang, C., M.F. Cronin, K.A. Kelly, and L. Thompson, 2005: Evaluation of a hybrid satellite- and NWP-based turbulent heat flux product using Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) buoys. J. Geophys. Res., 110(C9), C09007, doi:10.1029/2004JC002824.

Kaiser, J., M.K. Reuer, B. Barnett, and M.L. Bender, 2005: Marine productivity estimates from continuous O2/Ar ratio measurements by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19605, doi:10.1029/2005GL023459.

Keenlyside, N., M. Latif, M. Botzet, M. Jungclaus, and U. Schulzweida, 2005: A coupled method for initializing El Niño Southern Oscillation forecasts using sea surface temperature. Tellus A57, 340-356.

Kelly, K.A., S. Dickinson, and G.C. Johnson, 2005: Scatterometer winds at TAO buoys reveal time-varying surface currents for the Tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22, 735-745.

Ma, B.B. and J.A. Nystuen, 2005: Passive acoustic detection and measurement of rainfall at sea. J. Atmos. and Ocean.Tech., 22, 1225-1248.

Meinen, C.S., 2005: Meridional extent and interannual variability of the Pacific Ocean tropical-subtropical warm water volume exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 323-335.

Noh, Y., Y.J. Kang, T. Matsuura, and S. Iizuka, 2005: Effect of the Prandtl number in the parameterization of vertical mixing in an OGCM of the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23609, doi:10.1029/2005GL024540.

Philippe, R., A.T. Weaver, N. Daget, S. Ricci, and E. Machu, 2005: Ensembles of global ocean analyses for seasonal climate prediction: impact of temperature assimilation. Tellus A57, 375-386.

Ricci, S., A.T. Weaver, J. Vialard, and P. Rogel, 2005: Incorporating State-Dependent Temperature–Salinity Constraints in the Background Error Covariance of Variational Ocean Data Assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 317-338

Seo, K.-H. and Y. Xue, 2005: MJO-related oceanic Kelvin waves and the ENSO cycle: A study with the NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07712, doi:10.1029/2005GL022511.

Shaji, C., C. Wang, G.R. Halliwell, and A. Wallcraft, 2005: Simulation of tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans using a HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Ocean Modelling, 9,253-282.

Vintzileos, A., M.M. Rienecker, M.J. Suarez, S.D. Schubert, and S.K. Miller, 2005: Local versus remote wind forcing of the equatorial Pacific surface temperature in July 2003. Goephys. Res. Lett., 32, L05702, doi:10.1029/2004GL021972.

Worley, S.J., S.D. Woodruff, R.W. Reynolds, S.J. Lubker, and N. Lott, 2005: ICOADS release 2.1 data and data products. Intl. J. Climatol., 25, 323-342.

Yuan, D.L., 2005: Role of the Kelvin and Rossby waves in the seasonal cycle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 110(C4), C04004, doi10.1029/2004JC002344.


2004
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An, S.-I. and F.F. Jin, 2004: Nonlinearity and asymmetry of ENSO. J. Climate, 17, 2399-2412.

Cai, W., M.J. McPhaden, and M.A. Collier, 2004: Multidecadal fluctuations in the relationship between equatorial Pacific heat content anomalies and ENSO amplitude. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01201, doi:10.1029/2003GL018714.

de Boyer Montégut, C., G. Madec, A.S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, 2004: Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378.

de Szoeke, S.P. and C.S. Bretherton, 2004: Quasi-lagrangian large eddy simulations of cross-equatorial flow in the east Pacific atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1837-1858.

Eldin, G., T. Delcroix, and M. Rodier, 2004: The frontal area at the eastern edge of the western equatorial Pacific warm pool in April 2001. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C07006, doi:10.1029/2003JC002088.

Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, W. McGillis, M.E. Carr, and C.E. Cosca, 2004: Effects of wind speed and gas exchange parameterizations on the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S03, doi:10.1029/2003JC001896.

Gentemann, C.L., F.J. Wentz, C.A. Mears, and D.K. Smith, 2004: In situ validation of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission microwave sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C04021, doi:10.1029/2003JC002092.

Hartten, L.M. and P.A. Datulayta, 2004: Seasonal and interannual variations in the daily cycle of winds over the Galápagos. J. Climate, 17, 4522-4530.

Johnson, E.S. and J.A. Proehl, 2004: Tropical instability wave variability in the Pacific and its relation to large-scale currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2121-2147.

Johnson, G.C., C.L. Sabine, K.E. McTaggart, and J.M. Hummon, 2004: Physical oceanographic conditions during GasEx-2001. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S04, doi:10.1029/2002JC001718.

Kaplan, A., M.A. Cane, D. Chen, and D.L. Witter, 2004: Small-scale variability and model error in tropical Pacific sea level. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C02001, doi:10.1029/2002JC001743.

Kara, A.B., H.E. Hurlburt, P.A. Rochford, and J.J. O'Brien, 2004: The impact of water turbidity on the interannual sea surface temperature simulations in a layered global ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 345-359.

Lengaigne, M., E. Guilyardi, J.P. Boulanger, C. Menkes, P. Delecluse, P. Inness, J. Cole, and J. Slingo, 2004: Triggering of El Niño by westerly wind events in a coupled general circulation model. Clim. Dyn., 23, 601-620.

Levinson, D.H., et al, 2005: State of the Climate in 2004. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 86(6), S1-S86.

Maes, C., J. Picaut, Y. Kuroda, and K. Ando, 2004: Characteristics of the convergence zone at the eastern edge of the Pacific warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L11304, doi:10.1029/2004GL019867.

McPhaden, M.J., 2004: Evolution of the 2002-03 El Niño. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 677-695.

McPhaden, M.J. and D. Zhang, 2004: Pacific Ocean circulation rebounds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020727.

Morss, R.E., and D.S. Battisti, 2004: Evaluating observing requirements for ENSO prediction: Experiments with an intermediate coupled model. J. Climate, 17, 3057-3073.

Morss, R.E., and D.S. Battisti, 2004: Designing efficient observing networks for ENSO prediction. J. Climate, 17, 3074-3089.

Niiler, P.P., D.K. Lee, and J. Moisian, 2004: Observed mechanisms of El Niño SST evolution in the Pacific. J. Mar. Res., 62, 771-786.

Rajeevan, M. and M.J. McPhaden, 2004: Tropical Pacific upper ocean heat content variations and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18203, doi:10.1029/2004GL020631.

Raymond, D.J., S.K. Esbensen, C. Paulson, M. Gregg, C.S. Bretherton, W.A. Peterson, R. Cifelli, L. K. Shay, C. Ohlmann, and P. Zuidema, 2004: EPIC2001: and the coupled ocean -atmosphere system of the tropical east Pacific. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1341-1354.

Ricciardulli, L. and F.J. Wentz, 2004: Uncertainties in sea surface temperature retrievals from space: Comparison of microwave and infrared observations from TRMM. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12013, doi:10.1029/2003JC002247.

Schott, F.A., J.P. McCreary Jr., and G.C. Johnson, 2004: Shallow overturning circulations of the tropical-subtropical oceans. In Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. C. Wang, J. A. Carton, and S.P. Xie (eds.), Geophysical Monograph Series 147, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, p. 261-304.

Serra, Y. and M.J. McPhaden, 2004: In situ observations of the diurnal variability in rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, 17, 3496-3509.

Smith, S.R., J. Servain, D.M. Legler, J.J. Stricherz, M.A. Bourassa, and J.J. O'Brien, 2004: In situ-based pseudo-wind stress products for the tropical oceans. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 979-994.

Stammer, D., K. Ueyoshi, A. Köhl, W.G. Large, S.A. Josey, and C. Wunsch, 2004: Estimating air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum through global ocean data assimilation. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C05023, doi:10.1029/2003JC002082.

Strutton, P.G. and F.P. Chavez, 2004: Biological heat in the equatorial Pacific: Spatial and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17, 1097-1109.

Strutton, P.G., F.P. Chavez, R.C. Dugdale, and V. Hogue, 2004: Primary productivity in the central equatorial Pacific (3°S 130°W) during GasEx-2001. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S06, doi:10.1029/2003JC001790.

Vossepoel, F.C., A.T. Weaver, J. Vialard, and P. Delecluse, 2004: Adjustment of near-equatorial wind stress with four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a model of the Pacific Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev, 132, 2070-2083.

Wang, C. and J. Picaut, 2004, Understanding ENSO physics - A review. In Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. C. Wang, S.P. Xie, and J.A. Carton (eds.), American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph 147, Washington, D.C., pp. 21-48.

Wang, O., I. Fukumori, T. Lee, and G.C. Johnson, 2004: Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Niño. Geophys. Res. Letters., 31(4), L04305, doi:10.1029/2003GL019087.

Wang, X. and Y. Chao, 2004: Simulated sea surface salinity variability in the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(2), L02302, 10.1029/2003GL018146.

Weller, R.A., F. Bradley, and R. Lukas, 2004: The Interface or Air-Sea Flux Component of the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment and Its Impact on Subsequent Air-Sea Interaction Studies. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 21, 223-257.

Willis, J.K., D. Roemmich, and B. Cornuelle, 2004: Interannual variability in upper ocean heat content, temperature, and thermosteric expansion on global scales. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12036, doi:10.1029/2003JC002260.

Yuan, D.Y., M.M. Rienecker, and P.S. Schopf, 2004: Long wave dynamics of the interannual variability in a numerical hindcast of the equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation during the 1990s. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C05019, doi:10.1029/2003JC001936.

Zelle, H., G. Appeldoorn, G. Burgers, and G.J. van Oldenborgh, 2004: On the relationship between sea surface temperature and thermocline depth in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 643-655.


2003
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Belamari, S., J.C. Redelsperger, and M. Pontaud, 2003: Dynamic role of a westerly wind burst in triggering an equatorial Pacific warm event. J. Climate, 16, 1869-1890.

Boulanger, J.P., S. Cravatte, and C. Menkes, 2003: Reflected and locally wind-forced interannual equatorial Kelvin waves in the western Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C10), 3311, doi:10.1029/2002JC001760.

Bowman, K.P., A.B. Phillips, and G.R. North, 2003: Comparison of TRMM rainfall retrievals with rain gauge data from the TAO/TRITON buoy array. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(14), 1757, doi:10.1029/2003GL017552.

Chelton, D.B., M.G. Schlax, J.M. Lyman and G.C. Johnson, 2003: Equatorially trapped Rossby waves in the presence of meridionally sheared baroclinic flow in the Pacific Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 56, 323-380.

Cosca, C.E., R.A. Feely, J. Boutin, J. Etcheto, M.J. McPhaden, F.P. Chavez, and P.G. Strutton, 2003: Seasonal and interannual CO2 fluxes for the Central and Eastern euqatorial Pacific Ocean as determined by fCO2-SST relationships. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 3278, doi:10.1029/2000JC000677.

Cravatte, S., J. Picaut, and G. Eldin, 2003: Second and first baroclinic Kelvin modes in the equatorial Pacific at intraseasonal timescales, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3266, doi:10.1029/2002JC001511.

Cronin, M.F., S.P. Xie, and H. Hashizume, 2003: Barometric pressure variations associated with eastern Pacific tropical instability waves. J. Climate, 16, 3050-3057.

Durand, F., L. Gordeau, T. Delcroix, and J. Verron, 2003: Can we improve the representation of modeled ocean mixed layer by assimilating surface only satellite-derived data? A new study for the tropical Pacific during the 1997-98 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C6), 3200, doi:10.1029/2002JC001603.

Fujii, Y. and M. Kamachi, 2003: Three-dimensional analysis of temperature and salinity in the equatorial Pacific using a variational method with vertical coupled temperature-salinity empirical orthogonal function modes. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C9), 3297, doi:10.10129/2002JC001745.

Galanti, E., E. Tziperman, M. Harrison, A. Rosati, and Z. Sirkes, 2003: A study of ENSO prediction using a hybrid coupled model and the adjoint method for data assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2748-2764.

Guilyardi, E., P. Delecluse, S. Gualdi, and A. Navarra, 2003: Mechanisms for ENSO phase change in a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 16, 1141-1158.

Hasegawa, T. and K. Hanawa, 2003: Heat content related to ENSO variability in the Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 407-421.

Ioualalen, M., Y. Wakata, Y. Kawahara, Y. Gouriou, and D. Varillon, 2003: Variability of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) in the western tropical Pacific: On the ability of an OGCM to simulate the SSS, and on the sampling of an operating merchant ship SSS network. J. Oceanogr., 59, 105-111.

Kara, A.B., P.A. Rochford, and H.E. Hurlburt, 2003: Mixed layer depth variability over the ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 3079, doi:10.1029/2000JC000736.

Kennan, S.C. and P.P. Niiler, 2003: Estimating sea level slope on the equator. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2627-2642.

Kennan, S.C. and P.P. Niiler, 2003: The effects of wind forcing and pycnocline stresses on zonal currents in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2643-2656.

Kessler, W.S., G.C. Johnson, and D.W. Moore, 2003: Sverdrup and nonlinear dynamics of the Pacific equatorial currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 994-1008.

McPhaden, M.J., 2003: Tropical Pacific Ocean heat content variations and ENSO persistence barriers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(9), 1480, doi:10.1029/2003GL016872.

Molinari, R.L., S. Bauer, D. Snowden, G.C. Johnson, B. Bourles, Y. Gouriou, and H. Mercier, 2003: A comparison of kinematic evidence for tropical cells in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In: Interhemispheric Water Exchange in the Atlantic Ocean, G. J.Goni and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, eds., Elsevier, 269-286.

Philander, S.G.H. and A. Fedorov, 2003: Is El Niño sporadic or cyclic? Annu. Rev. Earth Plan. Sci., 31, 579-594.

Serra, Y.L and M.J. McPhaden, 2003: Multiple time space comparisons of ATLAS buoy rain gauge measurements to TRMM satellite precipitation measurements. J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 1045-1059.

Sloyan, B.M., G.C. Johnson, and W.S. Kessler, 2003: The Pacific cold tongue: A pathway for interhemispheric exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1027-1043.

Stammer, D., C. Wunsch, R. Giering, C. Eckert, P. Heimbach, J. Marotzke, A. Adcroft, C.N. Hill, and J. Marshall, 2003: Volume, heat, and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993-2000, estimated from a general circulation model constrained by World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C1), 3007, doi:10.1029/2001JC001115.

Sui, C.-H., X. Li, M.M. Rienecker, K.-M. Lau, I. Laszlo, and R.T. Pinker, 2003: The role of daily surface forcing in the upper ocean over the tropical Pacific: A numerical study. J. Climate, 15, 756-766.

Thiébaux, J., E. Rogers, W. Wang, and B. Katz, 2003: A new high-resolution blended real-time global sea surface temperature analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 645-656.

Vecchi, G.A. and D.E. Harrison, 2003: On the termination of the 2002-03 El Niño event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1964, doi:10.1029/2003GL017564.

Vialard, J., C. Menkes, D.L.T. Anderson, and M.A. Balmaseda, 2003: Sensitivity of Pacific Ocean tropical instability waves to initial conditions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 105-121.

Vialard, J., A.T. Weaver, D.L.T. Anderson, and P. Delecluse, 2003: Three- and Four- dimensional variational assimilation with a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Part II: Physical validation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1379-1395.

Weaver, A.T., J. Vialard, and D.L.T. Anderson, 2003: Three- and Four- dimensional variational assimilation with a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Part I: Formulation, internal diagnostics, and consisteny checks. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1360-1378.

Woodroffe, C.D., M.R. Beech, and M.K. Gagan, 2003: Mid-Holocene El Niño variability in the equatorial Pacific from coral micro-atolls. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1358, doi:10.10292002GL015868.

Yu, L., R.A. Weller, and W.T. Liu, 2003: Case analysis of a role of ENSO in regulating the generation of westerly wind bursts in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C4), 3128, doi:10.1029/2002JC001498.

Yuan, D. and M.M. Rienecker, 2003: Inverse estimation of sea surface heat flux over the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Seasonal cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 3247 doi:10.1029/2002JC001367.


2002
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Alory, G. and T. Delcroix, 2002: Interannual sea level changes and associated mass transports in the tropical Pacific from TOPEX/Poseidon data and linear model results (1964-1999). J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3153, doi:10.1029/2001JC001067.

Ando, K. and Y. Kuroda, 2002: Two modes of salinity and temperature in the surface layer of the Pacific warm pool. J. Oceanogr., 58, 599-609.

Benestad, R.E. , R.T. Sutton, and D.L.T. Anderson, 2002: the effect of El Niño on intraseasonal Kelvin waves. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 1277-1291.

Bingham, F.M., S.D. Howden, and C.J. Koblinsky, 2002: Sea surface salinity measurements in the historical database. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8019, doi:10.1029/2000JC000767.

Bonjean, F. and G.E.S. Lagerloef, 2002: Diagnostic Model and Analysis of the Surface Currents in the Tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938-2954

Chepurin, G.A. and J.A. Carton, 2002: Secular trend in the near-surface currents of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(17), 1828, doi:10.1029/2002GL015227.

Contreras, R.F., 2002: Long-Term Observations of Tropical Instability Waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2715-2722.

Cronin, M.F., N. Bond, C. Fairall, J. Hare, M.J. McPhaden, and R.A. Weller, 2002: Enhanced Oceanic and Atmospheric Monitoring for the Eastern Pacific. Eos Trans. AGU, 83, 205.

Cronin, M.F. and W.S. Kessler, 2002: Seasonal and interannual modulation of mixed layer variability at 0°, 110°W. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 1-7.

Cronin, M.F. and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Barrier layer formation during westerly wind bursts. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8020, doi:10.1029/2001JC001171.

Delcroix, T. and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Interannual sea surface salinity and temperature changes in the western Pacific warm pool during 1992-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8002, doi:10.1029/2001JC000862.

du Penhoat, Y., G. Reverdin, and G. Caniaux, 2002: A Lagrangian investigation of vertical turbulent heat fluxes in the upper ocean during TOGA-COARE. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C5), 3039 doi:10.1029/2001JC000926.

Ebuchi, N., H.C. Graber, and M.J. Caruso, 2002: Evaluation of wind vectors observed by QuikSCAT/SeaWinds using ocean buoy data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 2049-2062.

Eldin, G. and M. Rodier, 2002: Ocean physics and nutrient fields along 180° during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C12), 8137, doi:10.1029/2002JC000746.

Feely, R.A., J. Boutin, C.E. Cosca, Y. Dandonneau, J. Etcheto, H.Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, C. Le Quéré, D. Mackey, M. McPhaden, N. Metzl, A. Poisson, and R. Wanninkhof, 2002: Seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 2443-2469.

Harrison, D.E., R.D. Romea, and S.H. Hankin, 2002: Central equatorial Pacific zonal currents: the sverdrup balance, nonlinearity and tropical instability waves. I. annual mean dynamics. J. Mar. Res., 59, 895-919.

Harrison, D.E. and R.D. Romea, 2002: Central equatorial Pacific zonal currents: the sverdrup balance, nonlinearity and tropical instability waves. II. seasonal cycle dynamics. J. Mar. Res., 59, 921-948.

Izumo, T., J. Picaut, and B. Blanke, 2002: Tropical pathways, equatorial undercurrent variabilyty and the 1998 La Niña. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(C22), 2080, doi:10.1029/2002GL015073.

Johnson, G.C., E. Kunze, K.E. McTaggart, and D.W. Moore. 2002: Temporal and spatial structure of the Equatorial Deep Jets in the Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3396-3407.

Johnson, G.C., B.M. Sloyan, W.S. Kessler, and K.E. McTaggart, 2002: Direct measurements of upper ocean currents and water properties across the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1990's. Prog. Oceanogr., 52, 31-61.

Kara, A.B., P.A. Rochford, and H.E. Hurlburt, 2002: Air-sea flux estimates and the 1997-98 El Niño. Boundary Layer Meteorol., 103, 439-458.

Keenlyside, N. and R. Kleeman, 2002: Annual cycle of equatorial zonal currents in the pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3093, doi:10.1029/2000JC000711.

Kessler, W.S, 2002: Mean Three-Dimensional Circulation in the Northeast Tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2457-2471.

Kubota, M., N. Iwasaka, S. Kizu, M. Konda, and K. Kutsuwada, 2002: Japanese Ocean Flux data sets with Use of Remote sensing Observations (J-OFURO). J. Oceanogr., 58, 213-225.

Kutsuwada, K. and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Intraseasonal variations in the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean prior to and during the 1997-98 El Niño. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1133-1149.

LeBorgne, R., R.A. Feely, and D. Mackey, 2002: Carbon fluxes in the equatorial Pacific: a synthesis of the JGOFS Programme. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 2425-2442.

Lengaigne, M., J.-P. Boulanger, C. Menkes, S. Masson, G. Madec, and P. Delecluse, 2002: Ocean response to the March 1997 westerly wind event. J. Geophys., Res., 107(C12), 8015, doi:10.1029/2001JC00841.

Lengaigne, M., G. Madec, C. Menkes, and G. Alory, 2002: Impact of isopycnal mixing on the tropical ocean circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C11), 3345, doi:10/1029/2002JC001704.

Levine, M.D., 2002: A modification of the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3166-3181.

Lien, R.C., E.D. D'Asaro, and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Internal waves and turbulence in the upper central equatorial Pacific: Lagrangian and Eulerian observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2619-2639.

Maes, C., M.J. McPhaden, and D. Behringer, 2002: Signatures of salinity variability in tropical Pacific Ocean dynamic height anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8012, doi:10.1029/2000JC000737.

Maloney, E.D. and J.T. Kiehl, 2002: MJO-Related SST Variations over the Tropical Eastern Pacific during Northern Hemisphere Summer. J. Climate, 15, 675-689.

McPhaden, M.J., 2002: Mixed layer temperature balance on intraseasonal time scales in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 15, 2632-2647.

McPhaden, M.J. and D. Zhang, 2002: Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature, 415, 603-608.

Medavaya, M., D.E. Waliser, R.A. Weller, and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Assessing ocean buoy shortwave shortwave observations using clear-sky model calculations. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C2), 3014, doi:10.1029/2000JC000558.

Matsuura, H., 2002: Observed variations of upper ocean zonal currents in the western equatorial Pacific and their relation to the local wind. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 3210, doi:10.1029/2000JC000757.

Picaut, J., E. Hackert, A.J. Busalacchi, and R. Murtugudde, 2002: Mechanisms of the 1997-1998 El Niño-La Niña, as inferred from space-based observations. J. Geophys. Res.-Ocean., 107(C5), 3037, doi:10.1029/2001JC000850.

Ryan, J.P., P.S. Polito, P.G. Strutton, and F.P. Chavez, 2002: Unusual large-scale phytoplankton blooms in the equatorial Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 55, 263-285.

Schwing, F.B., T. Murphree, L. deWitt, and P.M. Green, 2002: The evolution of oceanic and atmospheric anomalies in the northeast Pacific during the El Niño and La Niña events of 1995–2001. Prog. Oceanogr., 54, 459-491.

Serra, Y.L. and R.A. Houze, Jr., 2002: Observations of variability on synoptic time scales in the east Pacific ITCZ. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1723-1743.

Shu, L. and A.J. Clarke, 2002: Using an ocean model to examine ENSO dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 903-923.

Stammer, D., C. Wunsch, I. Fukumori, and J. Marshall, 2002: State estimation improves prospects for ocean research. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(27) p. 289ff.

Stammer, D., C. Wunsch, R. Giering, C. Eckert, P. Heimbach, J. Marotzke, A. Adcroft, C. N. Hill, and J. Marshall, 2002: Global ocean circulation during 1992-1997, estimated from ocean observations and a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C9), 3118, doi:10.1029/2001JC000888.

Thum, N., S.K. Esbensen, D.B. Chelton, and M.J. McPhaden, 2002: Air-sea heat exchange along the Northern Sea surface temperature front in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 3361-3378.

Troccoli, A., M. Balmaseda, J. Segnschneider, J. Vialard, D.L.T. Anderson, K. Haines, T. Stockdale, F. Vitart and A.D. Fox, 2002: Salinity adjustments in the presence of temperature data assimilation, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 89-102.

Vialard, J., P. Delecluse, and C. Menkes, 2002: A modeling study of salinity variability and its effects in the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1993-1999 period. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8005, doi:10.1029/2000JC000758.

Vossepoel, F.C., G. Burgers, and P.J. van Leeuwen, 2002: Effects of correcting salinity with altimeter measurements in an equatorial Pacific model. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8001, doi:10.1029/2001JC000816.

Wang, G., R. Kleeman, N. Smith, and F. Tseitkin, 2002: The BMRC Coupled General Circulation Model ENSO Forecast System. Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 975-991.

Wilson, S.G., 2002: Evaluation of various vertical mixing schemes in a tropical Pacific Ocean GCM. Ocean Modelling, 4, 291-311.

Zhang, R.H., and S.E. Zebiak, 2002: Effect of penetrating momentum flux over the surface boundary/mixed layer in a z-coordinate OGCM of the tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3616-3637.


2001
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Benestad, R.E., R.T. Sutton, M.R. Allen, and D.L.T. Anderson, 2001: The influence of subseasonal wind variability on tropical instability waves in the Pacific. Geophys. Res., Lett., 28, 2041-2044.

Bergman, J.W., H.H. Hendon, and K.M. Weickmann, 2001: Intraseasonal air-sea interactions at the onset of El Niño. J. Climate, 14, 1702-1719.

Bonekamp, H., G.J. van Oldenborgh, and G. Burgers, 2001: Variational assimilation of Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean and expendible bathythermograph data in the Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation ocean general circulation model, adjusting the surface fluxes in the tropical Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16,693-16,709.

Borovikov, A., M.M. Rienecker, and P.S. Schopf, 2001: Surface heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Climatology and the warming event of 1994-95. J. Climate, 14, 2624-2641.

Boulanger, J.-P., 2001: The Trident Pacific model. Part 1: simulating surface ocean currents with a linear model during the 1993-1998 TOPEX/POSEIDON period. Clim. Dyn., 17, 159-173.

Boulanger, J.-P. and C. Menkes, 2001: The Trident Pacific model. Part 2: role of long equatorial wave reflection on sea surface temperature anomalies during the 1993-1998 TOPEX/POSEIDON period. Clim. Dyn., 17, 175-186.

Chelton, D.B., S.K. Esbensen, M.G. Schlax, N. Thum, M.H. Freilich, F.J. Wentz, C.L. Gentemann, M.J. McPhaden, and P.S. Schopf, 2001: Observations of coupling between surface wind stress and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 14, 1479-1498.

Christy, J.R, D.E. Parker, S.J. Brown, I. Macadam, M. Stendel, and W.B. Norris, 2001: Differential trends in tropical sea surface and atmospheric temperatures since 1979. Geophys. Res., Lett., 28, 183-186.

Coles, V.J. and M.M. Rienecker, 2001: North Pacific subtropical-tropical gyre exchanges in the thermocline: Simulations with two isopycnic OGCMs. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2590-2611.

Collins, W.D., 2001: Effects of enhanced shortwave absorption on coupled simulations of the tropical climate system. J. Clim., 14, 1147-1165.

Dickinson, S., K.A. Kelly, M.J. Caruso, and M.J. McPhaden, 2001: A note on comparisons between TAO buoy and NASA scatterometer wind vectors. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18, 799-806.

Emery, W.J., D.J. Baldwin, P. Schlüssel, and R.W. Reynolds, 2001: Accuracy of in situ sea surface temperatures used to calibrate infrared satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2387-2405.

Enfield, D.B, 2001: Evolution and historical perspective of the 1997-98 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event. Bull. Mar. Sci., 69, 7-25.

Friedrichs, M.A.M., 2001: A data assimilative marine ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific: Numerical twin experiments. J. Mar. Res., 59, 859-894.

Friedrichs, M.A.M., 2001: Assimilation of JGOFS EqPac and SeaWifs data into a marine ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 49, 289-319.

Friedrichs, M.A.M. and E.E. Hofmann, 2001: Physical control of biological processes in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 48, 1023-1069.

Godfrey, J.S., G.C. Johnson, M.J. McPhaden, G. Reverdin, and S.E. Wijffels, 2001: The Tropical Ocean Circulation. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate - Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean, G. Siedler, J. Church and J. Gould, eds., Academic Press, 215-246.

Grodsky, S.A. and J.A. Carton, 2001: Intense surface currents in the tropical Pacific during 1996-1998. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16,673-16,684.

Hackert, E.C., A.J. Busalacchi, and R. Murtugudde, 2001: A wind comparison study using an ocean general circulation model for the 1997-98 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2345-2362.

Halpern, D. and C.W. Wen, 2001: Satellite observations of the southeast Pacific intertropical convergence zone. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28,107-28,112.

Harrison, D.E. and G.A. Vecchi, 2001: El Niño and La Niña equatorial Pacific thermocline depth and sea surface temperature anomalies, 1986-1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28., 1051-1054.

Hazeleger, W., P. de Vries, and G.J. van Oldenborg, 2001: Do tropical cells ventilate the Indo-Pacific equatorial thermocline? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1763-1766.

Helber, R.W. and R.H. Weisberg, 2001: Equatorial upwelling in the western Pacific warm pool. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8989-9003.

Ioualalen, M. and C. Hénin, 2001: Thermohaline variability of the western tropical Pacific during 1995-1998: On the erosion/reconstitution of the fresh pool. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 6869-6879.

Johnson, G.C., M.J. McPhaden, and E. Firing, 2001: Equatorial Pacific Ocean horizontal velocity, divergence, and upwelling. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 839-849.

Kelly, K.A., S. Dickinson, M.J. McPhaden, and G.C. Johnson, 2001: Ocean currents evident in satellite wind data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2469-2472.

Kuroda, Y. and Y. Amitani, 2001: TRITON: New Ocean and Atomosphere Observing Buoy Network for Monitoring ENSO, Umi no Kenkyu, 10, 157-172 (in Japanese with English abstract).

Large, W.G., G. Danabasoglu, J.C. McWilliams, P.R. Gent, and F.O. Bryan, 2001: Equatorial circulation of a global ocean climate model with anisotropic horizontal viscosity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 518-536.

Li, X., Y. Chao, J.C. McWilliams, and L.-L. Fu, 2001: A comparison of two vertical-mixing schemes in a Pacific Ocean general circulation model. J. Clim., 14, 1377-1398.

Liu, W.T. and K.B. Katsaros, 2001: Air-sea Fluxes from Satellite Data. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler, J. Church, and W.J. Gould (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, p. 173-180.

Masina, S., N. Pinardi, and A. Navarra, 2001: A global ocean temperature and altimeter data assimilation system for studies of climate variability. Clim. Dyn., 17, 687-700.

McPhaden, M.J., T. Delcroix, K. Hanawa, Y. Kuroda, G. Meyers, J. Picaut, and M. Swenson, 2001: The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Observing System. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century. Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia, 231-246.

Mears, C.A., D.K. Smith, and F.J. Wentz, 2001: Comparison of Special Sensor Microwave Imager and bouy-measured wind speeds from 1987 to 1997. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 11,719-11,729.

Meinen, C.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 2001: Interannual variability in warm water volume transports in the equatorial Pacific during 1993-1999. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1324-1345.

Meinen, C.S., M.J. McPhaden, and G.C. Johnson, 2001: Vertical velocities and transports in the equatorial Pacific during 1993-1999. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3230-3248.

Nowlin, Jr., M. Briscoe, W.D., N. Smith, M.J. McPhaden, D. Roemmich, P. Chapman, and J.F. Grassle, 2001: Evolution of a sustained ocean observing system. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 1368-1376.

Perkins, M.L. and N.J. Holbrook, 2001: Can Pacific Ocean thermocline depth anomalies be simulated by a simple linear vorticity model? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1786-1806.

Picaut, J., M. Ioualalen, T. Delcroix, F. Masia, R. Murtugudde, and J. Vialard, 2001: The oceanic zone of convergence on the eastern edge of the Pacific warm pool: A synthesis of results and implications for El Niño-Southern Oscilation and biogeochemical phenomena. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2363-2386.

Polito, P.S., J.P. Ryan, W.T. Liu, and F.P. Chavez, 2001: Oceanic and atmospheric anomalies of tropical instability waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2233-2236.

Quilfen, Y., B. Chapron, and D. Vandemark, 2001: The ERS scatterometer wind measurement accuracy: Evidence of seasonal and regional biases. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 18, 1684-1697.

Radenac, M.H., C. Menkes, J. Vialard, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, T. Delcroix, C. Dupouy, A. Stoens, and P.-Y. Deschamps, 2001: Modeled and observed impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño on nitrate and new production in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 26,879-26,898.

Segschneider, J., D L.T. Anderson, J. Vialard, M. Balmaseda, and T.N. Stockdale, 2001: Initialization of Seasonal Forecasts Assimilating Sea Level and Temperature Observations. J. Clim., 22, 4292-4307.

Send, U., R. Weller, S. Cunningham, C. Eriksen, T. Dickey, M. Kawabe, R. Lukas, M. McCartney, and S. Osterhus, 2001: Oceanographic time series observatories. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century. Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia, 376-390.

Serra, Y.L., P.A'Hearn, H.P. Freitag, and M.J. McPhaden, 2001: ATLAS self-siphoning rain gauge error estimates. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 18, 1989-2002.

Strutton, P.G., J.P. Ryan, and F.P. Chavez, 2001: Enhanced chlorophyll associated with tropical instability waves in the equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2005-2008.

Tian, B., G.J. Zhang, and V. Ramanathan, 2001: Heat balance in the Pacific wrm pool atmosphere during TOGA COARE and CEPEX. J. Clim., 14, 1881-1893.

Turk, D., M.J. McPhaden, M.R. Lewis, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2001: Remotely-sensed biological production in the Tropical Pacific during 1992-1999. Science, 293, 471-474.

Ulloa, O., R. Escribano, S. Hormazabal, R.A. Quiñones, R.R. González, and M. Ramos, 2001: Evolution and biological effects of the 1997-98 El Niño in the upwelling ecosystem off northern Chile. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1591-1594.

Vialard, J., C. Menkes, J.P. Boulanger, P. Delecluse, E. Guilyardi, M.J. McPhaden, and G. Madec, 2001: A model study of oceanic mechanisms affecting equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature during the 1997-98 El Niño. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1649-1675.

Wakata, Y., 2001: Kelvin waves excited by intraseasonal wind forcing. J. Oceanogr., 57, 693-707.

Wang, W. and M.J. McPhaden, 2001: Surface layer heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 1997-98 El Niño and the 1998-99 La Niña. J. Clim., 14, 3393-3407.

Wang, W. and M.J. McPhaden, 2001: What is the mean seasonal cycle of surface heat flux in the equatorial Pacific? J. Geophys. Res., 106, 837-857.

Wilson, C. and D. Adamec, 2001: Correlations between surface chlorophyll and sea surface height in the tropical Pacific during the 1997-1999 El Niño - Southern Oscillation event. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31,175-31,188.

Zeng, X. and Y. He, 2001: Surface evaporation at very high sea surface temperatures. In: Dynamics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation and Climate. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, China, 508-520.

Zhang, C., 2001: Double ITCZs. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 11,785-11,792.

Zhang, C., 2001: Intraseasonal perturbations in sea surface temperatures of the equatorial eastern Pacific and their association with the Madden-Julian oscillation. J. Clim., 14, 1309-1322.


2000
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Bennett, A.F., B.S. Chua, D.E. Harrison, and M.J. McPhaden, 2000: Generalized inversion of Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) data and a coupled model of the tropical Pacific. II: La Niña, error statistics, and array assessment. J. Clim., 13, 2770-2785.

Boss, S.K., 2000: Adventures in data analysis: The TAO array and the 1997-98 El Niño. Math. Geol., 32, 159-185.

Burns, S.P., D. Khelif, C.A. Friehe, P. Hignett, A.G. Williams, A.L.M. Grant, J.M. Hacker, D.E. Hagan, Y.L. Serra, D.P. Rogers, E.F. Bradley, R.A. Weller, C.W. Fairall, S.P. Anderson, C.A. Paulson, and P. A. Coppin, 2000: Comparisons of aircraft, ship, and buoy radiation and SST measurements from TOGA COARE. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15,627-15,652.

Carton, J.A., G. Chepurin, X. Cao, and B. Giese, 2000: A simple ocean data assimilaton analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-95. Part I: Methodology. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 294-309.

Carton, J.A., G. Chepurin, and X. Cao, 2000: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-95. Part II: Results. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 311-326.

Chakraborty, D.R., R.C.Torres, and D. Oosterhof, 2000: Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Modeling of the El Niño of 1997-98. J. Clim., 13, 2428-2459.

Chambers, D.P., J. Chen, R.S. Nerem, and B.D. Tapley, 2000: Interannual mean sea level change and the earth's water mass budget. Geophy. Res. Lett., 27(19), 3073-3076

Chelton, D.B., M.H. Freilich, and S.K. Esbensen, 2000: Satellite observations of the wind jets off the Pacific coast of Central America. Part I: Case studies and statistical characteristics. Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 1993-2018.

Cronin, M.F., M.J. McPhaden, and R.H. Weisberg, 2000: Wind forced reversing jets in the western equatorial Pacific. . J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 657-676.

Delcroix T., B. Dewitte B., Y. duPenhoat., F. Masia, and J. Picaut, 2000: Equatorial waves and warm pool displacements during the 1992-1998 ENSO events. Observation and modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 26,045-26,062.

Durand F. and T. Delcroix, 2000: A note on the variability of the tropical Pacific thermal structure during the 1979-1996 period, as deduced from XBT sections. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 3261-3269.

Fedorov, A.V. and W.K. Melville, 2000: Kelvin fronts on the equatorial thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1692-1705.

Fedorov, A.V. and S.G. Philander, 2000: Is El Niño Changing? Science, 288, 1997-2001.

Gourdeau, L., J. Verron, T. Delcroix, A.J. Busalacchi, and R. Murtugudde, 2000: Assimilation of Topex/Poseidon altimetric data in a primitive equation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean, during the 1992-1996 ENSO period. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 105, 8473-8488.

Harrison, D.E., G.A. Vecchi, and R.H. Weisberg, 2000: Eastward surface jets in the central equatorial Pacific, November 1991-March 1992. J. Mar. Res., 58, 735-754.

Ji, M., R.W. Reynolds, and D.W. Behringer, 2000: Use of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data of ocean analyses and ENSO prediction: some early results. J. Clim., 13, 216-231.

Johnson, G.C., M.J. McPhaden, G.D. Rowe, and K.E. McTaggart, 2000: Upper equatorial Pacific Ocean current and salinity variability during the 1996-98 El Niño-La Niña cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1037-1053.

Kennan, S.C. and P.J. Flament, 2000: Observations of a tropical instability vortex. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2277-2301.

Kessler, W.S. and R. Kleeman, 2000: Rectification of the Madden-Julian Oscillation into the ENSO cycle. J. Clim., 13, 3560-3575.

Lawrence, S.P. and J.P. Angell, 2000: Evidence for Rossby Wave Control of Tropical Instability Waves in the Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2257-2260.

Maes, C., 2000: Salinity variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 1993-98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1659-1662.

Maes, C. and D. Behringer, 2000: Using satellite-derived sea level and temperature profiles for determining the salinity variability: A new approach. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8537-8547.

Maes, C., D. Behringer, R.W. Reynolds, and M. Ji, 2000: Retrospective analysis of the salinity variability in the western tropical Pacific Ocean using an indirect minimization approach. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 512-524.

Meinen, C.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 2000: Observations of warm water volume changes in the equatorial Pacific and their relationship to El Niño and La Niña. J. Clim., 13, 3551-3559.

Murakami, H., J. Ishizaka, and H. Kawamura, 2000: ADEOS observations of chlorophyll a concentration, sea surface temperature, and wind stress change in the equatorial Pacific during the 1997 El Niño onset. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19,551-19,559.

Murray, M.J., M.R. Allen, C.J. Merchant, A.R. Harris, and C.J. Donlon, 2000: Direct observations of Skin-Bulk SST variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1171-1174.

Nightingale, P.D., P.S. Liss, and P. Schlosser, 2000: Measurements of air-sea gas transfer during an open ocean algal bloom. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2117-2120.

Ngodock, H.E., B.S. Chua, and A.F. Bennett, 2000: Generalized inverse of a reduced gravity primitive equation ocean model and Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean data. Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 1757-1777.

Nystuen, J.A., M.J. McPhaden, and H.P. Freitag, 2000: Surface measurements of precipitation from an ocean mooring: The underwater acoustic log from the South China Sea. J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 2182-2197.

Polito, P.S., O.T. Sato, and W.T. Liu, 2000: Characterization and validation of the heat storage variability from TOPEX/Poseidon at four oceanographic sites. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16,911-16,922

Quilfen, Y., A. Bentamy, P. Delecluse, K. Katsaros, and N. Grima, 2000: Prediction of sea level anomalies using ocean circulation model forced by scatterometer wind and validation using TOPEX/Poseidon data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 38, 1871-1884.

Richards, K.J. and M.E. Inall, 2000: The upper ocean heat content of the western equatorial Pacific: processes controlling its change during the Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 97,575-19,590.

Rowe, G.D., E. Firing, and G.C. Johnson, 2000: Pacific equatorial subsurface countercurrent velocity, transport, and potential vorticity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1172-1187.

Schiller, A., J.S. Godfrey, P.C. McIntosh, G. Meyers, and R. Fiedler, 2000: Interannual dynamics and thermodynamics of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 987-1012.

Strutton, P.G. and F.P. Chavez, 2000: Primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific during the 1997-1998 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26,089-26,101.

Thuburn, J. and R.T. Sutton, 2000: The seasonal cycle of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature in a coupled GCM. Clim. Dyn., 16, 935-947.

Ueki, I, K. Kutsuwada, H. Inaba, and A. Kaneko, 2000: Quasi-2-day signals observed in the warm pool region during TOGA/COARE IOP. J. Oceanogr., 56, 539-552.

Vossepoel, F.C. and D.W. Behringer, 2000: Impact of sea level assimilation on salinity variability in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Phys., Oceanogr., 30, 1706-1721.

Wang, W. and M.J. McPhaden, 2000: The surface layer heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Part II: Interannual variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2989-3008.

Weisberg, R.H. and L. Qiao, 2000: Equatorial upwelling in the central Pacific estimated from moored velocity profilers. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 105-124.

Wentz, F.J., C. Gentemann, D. Smith, and D. Chelton, 2000: Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds. Science, 288, 847-850.

Wilson, S.G., 2000: How ocean vertical mixing and accumulation of warm surface water influence the “sharpness” of the equatorial thermocline. J. Clim., 13, 3638-3656.

Yoneyama, K. and M. Katsumata, 2000: Overview of the RV Mirai Nauru99 cruise. Sea and Sky (Marine Meteorol. Soc.), 76, 59-63.

Yu, Z. and D.W. Moore, 2000: Validating the NSCAT winds in the vicinity of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2121-2124.

Yuter, S.E. and R.A. Houze Jr., 2000: The 1997 Pan American Climate Studies Tropical Eastern Pacific Process Study. Part I: ITCZ Region. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 81, 451-481.

Zhang C. and M.J. McPhaden, 2000: Intraseasonal surface cooling in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Clim., 13, 2261-2276.

Zhang, S., A.J. Plueddemann, S.P. Anderson, and R.A. Weller, 2000: Surface fluxes and their influence on sea surface temperature in the western equatorial Pacific during the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6341-6358.


1999
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Boutin, J., and collaborators, 1999: Satellite sea surface temperature: A powerful tool for interpreting in situ pCO2 measurement in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Tellus, 51B, 490-508.

Burns, S.P., D. Khelif, C.A. Friehe, A.G. Williams, P. Hignett, A.L.M. Grant, J.M. Hacker, D.P. Rogers, E.F. Bradley, R.A. Weller, M.F. Cronin, S.P. Anderson, C.W. Fairall, and C.A. Paulson, 1999: Comparisons of aircraft, ship, and buoy meteorological measurements from TOGA COARE. J. Geophys. Res, 104, 30,853-30,883.

Chavez, F.P., P.G. Strutton, G.E. Friederich, R.A. Feely, G.C. Feldman, D.G. Foley, and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997-1998 El Niño. Science, 286, 2126-2131.

Cronin, M.F., and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: Diurnal cycle of rainfall and surface salinity in the western Pacific warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3465-3468

Fukumori, I., R. Raghunath, L.L. Fu, and Y. Chao, 1999: Assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data into a global ocean circulation model: How good are the results? J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25,647-25,665.

Grima, N., A. Bentamy, K. Katsaros, Y. Quilfen, P. Delecluse, and C. Levy, 1999: Sensitivity of an oceanic general circulation model forced by satellite wind fields. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7967-7989.

Harrison, D.E., and G.A. Vecchi, 1999: On the termination of El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1593-1596.

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 1999: Pacific subtropical-tropical thermocline water exchange in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,065-11,076.

Johnson, G.C. and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: Interior pycnocline flow from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 3073-3089.

Kelly, K.A., S. Dickinson, and Z. Yu, 1999: NSCAT tropical wind stress maps: Implications for improving ocean modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,291-11,310.

Kessler, W.S., 1999: Interannual variability of the subsurface high salinity tongue south of the equator at 165°E. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2038-2049.

Lagerloef, G.S.E., G.T. Mitchum, R. Lukas, and P.P. Niiler, 1999: Tropical Pacific near surface currents estimated from altimeter, wind, and drifter data. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 23,313-23,326..

Large, W.G. and P.R. Gent, 1999: Validation of vertical mixing in an equatorial ocean model using large eddy simulations and observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 449-464.

Leonard, C.L., C.R. McClain, R. Murtugudde, E.E. Hofmann, and L.W. Harding, Jr., 1999: An iron-based ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1325-1341.

Maes, C. and D. Behringer, 1999: Sur une méthode d'analyse en composantes principales pour déterminer la variabilité haline des couches superficielles océanuques: application á l'océan Pacifique tropical ouest. On a principal component analysis to estimate the upper oceanic variability of salinity: application to the western tropical Pacific Ocean. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planétes/Earth & Planetary Sciences, 329, 597-602.

Maes, C., 1999: A note on the vertical scales of temperature and salinity and their signature in dynamic height in the western Pacific Ocean: Implications for data assimilation. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,037-11,048.

McPhaden, M.J., 1999: Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Niño. Science, 283, 950-954.

McPhaden, M.J., 1999: El Niño: The child prodigy of 1997-98. Nature, 398, 559-562.

McPhaden, M.J. and X. Yu, 1999: Equatorial waves and the 1997-98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2961-2964.

Merchant, C.J. and A.R. Harris, 1999: Toward the elimination of bias in satellite retrievals of sea surface temperature 2. Comparison with in situ measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23,579-23,590.

Moore, A.M. and R. Kleeman, 1999: The non-normal nature of El Ni&241;o and intraseasonal variability. J. Clim., 12, 2965-2982.

Philander, S.G.H., 1999: A review of tropical ocean-atmosphere interactions. Tellus, 51A-B, 71-90.

Schneider, E.K., B. Huang, Z. Zhu, D.G. DeWitt, J.L. Kinter III, B.P. Kirman, and J. Shukla, 1999: Ocean data assimilation, initialization, and predictions of ENSO with a coupled GCM. Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 1187-1207.

Seidel, H. and B.S. Giese, 1999: Equatorial currents in the Pacific Ocean, 1992-1997. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7849-7863.

Stoens, A., C. Menkés, M.H. Radenac, Y. Dandonneau, N. Grima, G. Eldin, L. Mémery, C. Navarette, J.M. André, T. Moutin, and P. Raimbault, 1999: The coupled physical-new production system in the equatorial Pacific during the 1992-1995 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 3323-3339.

Vossepoel, F.C., R.W. Reynolds, and L. Miller, 1999: Use of sea level observations to estimate salinity variability in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 1401-1415.

Wang, W. and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: The surface layer heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Part I: Mean seasonal cycle. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1812-1831.

Wentz, F.J., and D.K. Smith, 1999: A model function for the ocean-normalized radar cross section at 14 GHz derived from NSCAT observations. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,449-11,514.

Yu, X. and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: Dynamical analysis of seasonal and interannual variability in the Equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2350-2369

Yu, X. and M.J. McPhaden, 1999: Seasonal variability in the equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 925-947.

Zeng, X., M. Zhao, R.E. Dickinson, and Y. He, 1999: A multi-year hourly sea surface skin temperature dataset derived from the TOGA-TAO bulk temperature and wind speed over the Tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2503-2514.


1998
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Anderson, S.P. and M.F. Baumgartner, 1998: Radiative heating errors in naturally ventilated air temperature measurements made from buoys. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 157-173.

Behringer, D.W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa, 1998: An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implications for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Mon. Weather Rev., 126, 1013-1021.

Bennett, A.F., B.S. Chua, D.E. Harrison, and M.J. McPhaden, 1998: Generalized inversion of Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) data and a coupled model of the tropical Pacific. J. Clim., 11, 1768-1792.

Chambers, D.P., J.C. Ries, C.K. Shum, and B.D. Tapley, 1998: On the use of tide gauges to determine altimeter drift. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12,885-12,890.

Chambers, D.P., B.D. Tapley, and R.H. Stewart, 1998: Measuring heat storage changes in the equatorial Pacific: A comparison between TOPEX altimetry and Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean buoys. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,591-18,598,

Chavez, F.P., P.G. Strutton, and M.J. McPhaden, 1998: Biological-physical coupling the central equatorial Pacific during the onset of the 1997-98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3543-3546.

Cronin, M.F. and M.J. McPhaden, 1998: Upper ocean salinity balance in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27,567-27587.

Davey, M.K. and D.L.T. Anderson, 1998: A comparison of the 1997/98 El Niño with other such events. Weather, 53, 295-302.

Delcroix, T. and J. Picaut, 1998: Zonal displacement of the western equatorial Pacific “fresh pool.” J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1087-1098.

Delcroix, T, 1998: Observed surface oceanic and atmospheric variability in the tropical Pacific at seasonal and ENSO timescales: A tentative overview. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,611-18,634.

Delcroix, T., L. Gourdeau, and C. Hénin, 1998: Sea surface salinity changes along the Fiji-Japan shipping track during the 1996 La Niña and 1997 El Niño period. Geophys. Res. lett., 25, No 16, 3169-3172.

Deser, C. and C.A. Smith, 1998: Diurnal and semidiurnal variations of the low-level wind field over the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Clim., 11, 1730-1748.

Godfrey, J.S., R.A. Houze Jr., R.H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J.L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, and R. Weller, 1998: Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE): An interim report. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,395-14,450.

Gourdeau, L., 1998: Internal tides observed at 2°S-156°E by in situ and TOPEX/POSEIDON data during the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE). J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12,629-12,638.

Halpern, D., M. Ji, A. Leetmaa, and R.W. Reynolds, 1998: Influence of assimilation of subsurface temperature measurements on simulations of equatorial undercurrent and south equatorial current along the Pacific equator. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 1471-1477.

Hartten, L.M., 1998: Reconciliation of surface and profiler winds at ISS sites. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 826-834.

Hendon, H.H., B. Liebmann, and J.D. Glick, 1998: Oceanic Kelvin Waves and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 88-101.

Hénin, C., Y. du Penhoat, and M. Ioualalen, 1998: Observations of Sea Surface salinity in the western Pacific fresh pool: Large-scale changes in 1992-1995. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 7523-7536.

Inall, M.E., K.J. Richards, and G. Eldin, 1998: The changing structure of the upper ocean in the western equatorial Pacific during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 21,385-21,400.

Kaplan, A., M.A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, A.C. Clement, M.B. Blumenthal, and B. Rajagopalan, 1998: Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856-1991 (Paper 98JC01736). J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,567-18,590.

Kessler, W.S., L.M. Rothstein, and D. Chen, 1998: The annual cycle of SST in the eastern tropical Pacific, diagnosed in an ocean GCM. J. Clim., 11, 777-799.

Kubota, M. and H. Yokota, 1998: Construction of surface wind stress fields with high temporal resolution by using the ERS-1 scaterrometer data. J. Oceanogr., 54, 247-256.

Kutsuwada, K., 1998: Impact of wind/wind-stress field in the North Pacific constructed by ADEOS/NSCAT data. J. Oceanogr., 54, 301-314.

Lagerloef, G.S.E., R. Lukas, R.A. Weller, and S.P. Anderson, 1998: Upper ocean feedback. J. Clim., 11, 2297-2309.

Lawrence, S.P., M.R. Allen, D.L.T. Anderson, and D.T. Llewellyn-Jones, 1998: Effects of subsurface ocean dynamics on instability waves in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,649-18,664.

Lee, H.H., P.S. Chu, C.H. Sui, and K.M. Lau, 1998: On the annual cycle of latent heat fluxes over the equatorial Pacific using TAO buoy Observations. J. Meteorol., Soc. of Japan, 76, 909-923.

Li, X., C.H. Sui, D. Adamec, and K.-M. Lau, 1998: Impacts of precipitation in the upper ocean in the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5347-5359.

Maes, C., P. Delecluse, and G. Madec, 1998: Impact of westerly wind bursts on the warm pool of the TOGA-COARE domain in an OGCM. Clim. Dyn., 14, 55-70.

May, D.A., M.M. Parmeter, D.S. Olszewski, and B.D. McKenzie, 1998: Operational processing of satellite sea surface temperature retrievals at the Naval Oceanographic Office. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 397-407.

McPhaden, M.J., A.J. Busalacchi, R. Cheney, J.R. Donguy, K.S. Gage, D. Halpern, M. Ji, P. Julian, G. Meyers, G.T. Mitchum, P.P. Niiler, J. Picaut, R.W. Reynolds, N. Smith, K. Takeuchi, 1998: The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) observing system: A decade of progress. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,169-14,240.

Milliff, R.F., T.J. Hoar, and R.A. Madden, 1998: Fast, eastward-moving disturbances in the surface winds of the equatorial Pacific. Tellus, 50A, 26-41.

Morris, M.Y., D.H. Roemmich, G. Meyers, and R. Weisberg, 1998: Upper ocean heat and freshwater advection in the western Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,023-13,040.

Oberhuber, J.M., E. Roeckner, M. Christoph, M. Esch, and M. Latif, 1998: Predicting the '97 El Niño event with a global climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2273-2276.

Philander, G., 1998: Learning from El Niño. Weather, 53, 270-274.

Qiao, L. and R.H. Weisberg, 1998: Tropical instability wave energetics: Observations from the Tropical Instability Wave Experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 345-360.

Reynolds, R.W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa, 1998: Use of salinity to improve ocean modeling. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23, 535-555.

Rufenach, C., 1998: Comparison of four ERS-1 scatterometer wind retrieval algorithms with buoy measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 304-313.

Rufenach, C.L., J.J. Bates, and S. Tosini, 1998: ERS-1 Scatterometer measurements-Part I: The relationship between radar cross section and buoy wind in two oceanic regions. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36, 603-622.

Rufenach, C.L., 1998: ERS-1 Sctterometer measurements-Part II: An algorithm for ocean-surface wind retrieval including light winds. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36, 623-635.

Servain, J., A.J. Busalacchi, M.J. McPhaden, A.D. Moura, G. Reverdin, M. Vianna, and S.E. Zebiak, 1998: A Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 2019-2031.

Shinoda, T., H.H. Hendon, and J. Glick, 1998: Intraseasonal variability of surface fluxes and sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Clim., 11, 1685-1702.

Sirven, J., C. Frankignoul, S. Février, N. Sennéchael, and F. Bonjean, 1998: Two-layer model simulations using observation and model-based wind stresses of the 1985-1992 thermocline depth anomalies in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 21,367-21,384.

Slingo, J., 1998: The 1997/98 El Niño. Weather, 53, 274-281.

Stockdale, T.N., A.J. Busalacchi, D.E. Harrison, and R. Seager, 1998: Ocean modeling for ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,325-14,355.

Sui, C.H., X. Li, and K.M. Lau, 1998: Selective absorption of solar radiation and upper ocean temperature in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10,313-10,321.

Sun, C., W.D. Smyth, and J.N. Moum, 1998: Dynamic instability of stratified shear flow in the upper equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10323-10337.

Ueki, I., K. Kutsuwada, H. Inaba, and A. Kaneko, 1998: Short-term variability of surface oceanic current measured by moored acoustic Doppler current profilers during TOGA/COARE IOP. J. Oceanogr., 54, 227-240.

Zeng, X. and R.E. Dickinson, 1998: Impact of diurnally-varying skin temperature on surface fluxes over the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1411-1414.

Zeng, X. M. Zhao, and R.E. Dickinson, 1998: Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data. J. Clim., 11, 2628-2644.

Zhang, K.Q. and L.M. Rothstein, 1998: Modeling the oceanic response to westerly wind bursts in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 2227-2249.

Zhu, X.H., A. Kaneko, N. Gohda, H. Inaba, K. Kutsuwada, and M.H. Radenac, 1998: Observation of Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Oceanogr., 54, 133-141.


1997
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Ando, K. and M.J. McPhaden, 1997: Variability of surface layer hydrography in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,063-23,078.

Archer, D., J. Aiken, W. Balch, R. Barber, J. Dunne, P. Flament, W. Gardner, C. Garside, C. Goyet, E. Johnson, D. Kirchman, M. McPhaden, J. Newton, E. Peltzer, L. Welling, J. White, J. Yoder, 1997: A Meeting Place of Great Ocean Currents: Shipboard Observations of a Convergent Front at 2°N in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 1827-1850.

Baturin, N.G. and P.P. Niiler, 1997: Effects of instability waves in the mixed layer of the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 27,771-27,793.

Boutin, J. and J. Etcheto, 1997: Long-term variability of the air-sea CO2 exchange coefficient: Consequences for the CO2 fluxes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 11(3), 453-470.

Brasnett, B., 1997: A global Analysis of sea surface temperature for numerical weather prediction. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 925-937.

Caldwell, D.R., R.C. Lien, J.N. Moum, and M.C. Gregg, 1997: Turbulence decay and restratification in the equatorial ocean surface layer following nighttime convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1120-1132.

Chambers, D.P., B.D. Tapley, and R.H. Stewart, 1997: Long-period ocean heat storage rates and basin-scale heat fluxes from TOPEX. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10,525-10534.

Chen, S.S. and R.A. Houze, Jr. 1997: Diurnal variation and life cycle of deep convective systems over the tropical Pacific warm pool. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 357-388.

Collins, W.D., J. Wang, J.T. Kiehl, and G.J. Zhang, 1997: Comparison of Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere fluxes with the NCAR community climate model CCM3. J. Clim., 10, 3047-3058.

Cronin, M.F. and M.J. McPhaden, 1997: The upper ocean heat balance in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool during September-December 1992. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8533-8553.

Eldin, G., M. Rodier, and M-H. Radenac, 1997: Physical and nutrient variability in the upper equatorial Pacific associated with westerly wind forcing and wave activity in October 1994. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 1783-1800.

Flatau, M., P.J. Flatau, P. Phoebus, and P.P. Niiler, 1997: The feedback between equatorial convection and local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2373-2386.

Foley, D.G., T.D. Dickey, M.J. McPhaden, R.R. Bidigare, M.R. Lewis, R.T. Barber, S.T. Lindley, C. Garside, D.V. Manov, and J.D. McNeil, 1997: Time series of physical, bio-optical, and geochemical properties in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean at 0°,140°W February 1992-March 1993. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 1801-1826.

Goddard, L. and N.E. Graham, 1997: El Niño in the 1990's. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10,423-10,436.

Gu, D. and S.G.H. Philander, 1997: Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the tropics and extratropics. Science, 275, 805-807.

Gu, D., S.G.H. Philander, and M.J. McPhaden, 1997: The seasonal cycle and its modulation in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2209-2218.

Harrison, D.E. and G.A. Vecchi, 1997: Westerly wind events in the tropical Pacific, 1986-95. J. Clim., 10, 3131-56.

He, Y., X.H. Yan, and W.T. Liu, 1997: Surface heat fluxes in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean estimated by bulk parameterization and by an inverse mixed layer model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2477-2487.

Ji, M. and A. Leetmaa, 1997: Impact of data assimilation on ocean initialization and El Niño prediction. Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 742-753.

Johnson, G.C. and D.W. Moore, 1997: The Pacific Subsurface Countercurrents and an inertial model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2448-2459.

Kuragano, T. and A. Shibata, 1997: Sea surface dynamic height of the Pacific Ocean derived from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data: Calculation method and accuracy. J. of Oceanogr. (Japan), 53, 585-599.

Lau, K.M. and C.H. Sui, 1997: Mechanisms of short-term sea surface temperature regulation: Observations during TOGA COARE. J. Clim., 10, 465-472.

Pinkel, R., M. Merrifield, M. McPhaden, J. Picaut, S. Rutledge, D. Siegel, and L. Washburn, 1997: Solitary waves in the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1603-1606.

Plimpton, P.E., H.P. Freitag, and M.J. McPhaden, 1997: ADCP velocity errors from pelagic fish schooling around equatorial moorings. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 1212-1223.

Qiao, L. and R.H. Weisberg, 1997: The zonal momentum balance of the Equatorial Undercurrent in the central Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1094-1119.

Ralph, E.A., K. Bi, P.P. Niiler, and Y. du Penhoat, 1997: A Lagrangian description of the western equatorial Pacific response to the wind burst of December 1992: Heat advection in the warm pool. J. Clim., 10, 1706-1721.

Shaffer, G., O. Pizarro, L. Djurfeldt, S. Salinas, and J. Rutllant, 1997: Circulation and low-frequency variability near the Chilean coast: Remotely-forced fluctuations during the 1991-1992 El Niño. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 217-235.

Short, D.A., P.A. Kucera, B.S. Ferrier, J.C. Gerlach, S.A. Rutledge, and O.W. Thiele, 1997: Shipboard radar rainfall patterns within the TOGA COARE IFA. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78(12), 2817-2836.

Sui, C.H., X. Li, K.M. Lau, and D. Adamec, 1997: Multi-scale air-sea interactions during TOGA COARE. Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 448-462.

Webster, P.J. and T.N. Palmer, 1997: The past and the future of El Niño. Nature, 390, 562-564.

Weisberg, R.H. and C. Wang, 1997: Slow variability in the equatorial West-Central Pacific in relation to ENSO. J. Clim., 10, 1998-2017.

Yang, Y.J., T.Y. Tang, and R.H. Weisberg, 1997: Basin-wide zonal wind stress and ocean thermal variations in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 911-928.

Yu, Z., P.S. Schopf, and J.P. McCreary, Jr., 1997: On the annual cycle of upper ocean circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 309-324.

Yu, Z. and P.S. Schopf, 1997: Vertical eddy mixing in the tropical ocean: Its influence on zonal currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1447-1458.

Zhang, C., 1997: Intraseasonal variability of the upper-ocean thermal structure observed at 0° and 165°E. J. Clim., 10, 3077-3092.


1996
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Anderson, D.L.T., J. Sheinbaum, and K. Haines, 1996: Data assimilation in ocean models. Rev. Prog. Phys., 59, 1209-1266.

Anderson, S.P., R.A. Weller, and R.B. Lukas, 1996: Surface buoyancy forcing and the mixed layer of the western Pacific warm pool: Observations and 1D Model Results. J. Clim., 9, 3056-3085.

Atlas, R., R.N. Hoffman, S.C. Bloom, J.C. Jusem, and J. Ardizzone, 1996: A multi-year global surface wind velocity data set using SSM/1 wind observations. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 869-882.

Bauer, E., 1996: Characteristic frequency distributions of remotely senses in situ and modelled wind speeds. Int. J. of Climatology, 16, 1087-1102.

Bidigare, R.R. and M.E. Ondrusek, 1996: Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 809-834.

Boutin, J. and J. Etcheto, 1996: Consistency of GEOSAT, SSM/I and ERS1 global surface wind speeds; comparison with in-situ data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 183-187.

Carton, J.A., B.S. Giese, X. Cao, and L. Miller, 1996: Impact of altimeter, thermistor, and XBT data on retrospective analyses of the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14,147-14,159.

Chai, R., S.T. Lindley, and R.T. Barber, 1996: Origin and maintenance of a high nitrate condition in the equatorial pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 1031-1064.

Chavez, F.P., K.R. Buck, S.K. Service, J. Newton, and R.T. Barber, 1996: Phytoplankton variability in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II, 43, 835-870.

Esbensen, S.K. and M.J. McPhaden, 1996: Enhancement of tropical ocean evaporation and sensible heat flux by atmospheric mesoscale systems. J. Clim., 9, 2307-2325.

Flament, P., S. Kennan, R. Knox, P. Niiler, and R. Bernstein, 1996: The three-dimensional structure of an upper ocean vortex in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383, 610-613.

Frankignoul, C., F. Bonjean, and G. Reverdin, 1996: Interannual variability of surface currents in the tropical Pacific during 1987-1993. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 3629-3648.

Ji, M., A. Leetmaa, and V.E. Kousky, 1996: Coupled model predictions of ENSO during the 1980s and the 1990s at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. J. Clim., 9, 3105-3120.

Johnson, E.S., 1996: A convergent instability wave front in the central tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 753-778.

Kessler, W.S., M.C. Spillane, M.J. McPhaden, and D.E. Harrison, 1996: Scales of variability in the equatorial Pacific inferred from the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) Array. J. Clim., 9, 2999-3024.

Kleeman, R., R.A. Colman, N.R. Smith, and S.B. Power, 1996: A recent change in the mean state of the Pacific basin climate: Observational evidence and atmospheric and oceanic responses. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20,483-20,500.

Konda, M., N. Imasato, and A. Shibata, 1996: A new method to determine near-sea surface air temperature by using satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14,349-14,360.

Li, T. and S.G.H. Philander, 1996: On the annual cycle of the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Clim., 9, 2986-2998.

Lien, R.C., M.J. McPhaden, and M.C. Gregg, 1996: High-frequency internal waves in the upper central equatorial Pacific and their possible relationship to deep-cycle turbulence. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 581-600.

Lin, X. and R.H. Johnson, 1996: Heating, moistening, and rainfall over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3367-3383.

Liu, W.T., W. Tang, and R. Atlas, 1996: Responses of the tropical Pacific to wind forcing as observed by spaceborne sensors and simulated by an ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 16,345-16,360.

McPhaden, M.J., 1996: Monthly period oscillations in the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 6337-6359.

Nowlin, W.D., N. Smith, G. Needler, P.K. Taylor, R. Weller, R. Schmitt, L. Merlivat, A. Vézina, A. Alexiou, M.J. McPhaden, and M. Wakatsuchi, 1996: An Ocean Observing System for climate. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 2243-2273.

Picaut, J., M. Ioualalen, C. Menkes, T. Delcroix and M.J. McPhaden, 1996: Mechanism of the zonal displacements of the Pacific warm pool: Implications for ENSO. Science, 274, 1486-1489.

Radenac, M.H. And M. Rodier, 1996: Nitrate and chlorophyll distributions in relation to thermohaline and current structures in the western tropical Pacific during 1985-1989. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 725-752.

Reverdin, G., A. Kaplan, and M.A. Cane, 1996: Sea level from temperature profiles in the tropical Pacific Ocean, 1975-1982. J. Phys. Oceans., 101, 18,105-18,119.

She, J. and S. Nakamoto, 1996: Spatial sampling study for the tropical Pacific with observed sea surface temperature fields. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 1189-1201.

Smith, N.R. and G. Meyers, 1996: An evaluation of XBT and TAO data for monitoring tropical ocean variability. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 28,489-28,502.

Taft, B.A. and J.M. Wallace, 1996: Stanley P. Hayes, 1944-1992: A Eulogy. J. Clim., 9, 2955-2957.

Weller, R.A. and S.P. Anderson, 1996: Surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool during the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Clim., 9, 1959-1990.

Zedel, L., G.B. Crawford, and L. Gordon, 1996: On the determination of wind direction using an upward looking acoustic Doppler current profiler. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12,163-12,176.

Zhang, C., 1996: Atmospheric intraseasonal variability at the surface in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 739-758.

Zhang, G.J. and R.L. Grossman, 1966: Surface evaporation during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment: A climate scale perspective. J. Clim., 9, 2522-2537.


1995
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Allen, M.R., S.P. Lawrence, M.J. Murray, C.T. Mutlow, T.N. Stockdale, D.T. Llewellyn-Jones, and D.L.T. Anderson, 1995: Control of tropical instability waves in the Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2581-2584.

Anderson, D.L.T., 1995: The tropical ocean global atmosphere programme. Contemporary Phys., 36, 245-265.

Ando, K., Y. Kuroda, K. Yoneyama, K. Muneyama, and K. Takeuchi, 1995: Variations of hydrographic properties and heat budget observed at 0°, 156°E during TOGA COARE R/V Natsushima Cruise. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 73, 1-11.

Bond, N.A. and M.J. McPhaden, 1995: An indirect estimate of the diurnal cycle in upper ocean turbulent heat fluxes at the equator, 140°W. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,369-18,378.

Boulanger, J.P. and C. Menkes, 1995: Propagations and reflection of long equatorial waves in the Pacific Ocean during the 1992-1993 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,041-25,060.

Chou, S.H., R.M. Atlas, C.-L. Shie, and J. Ardizzone, 1995: Estimates of surface humidity and latent heat fluxes ocer oceans from SSM/I data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2405-2425.

Fukumori, I., 1995: Assimilation of TOPEX sea level measurements with a reduce-gravity shallow water model of the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,027-25,039.

Halpern, D., Y. Chao, C.C. Ma, and C.R. Mechoso, 1995: Comparison of tropical Pacific temperature and current simulations with two vertical mixing schemes embedded in an ocean general circulation model and reference to observations. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2515-2522.

Honjo, S., J. Dymond, R. Collier, and S.J. Manganini, 1995: Export production of particles to the interior of equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1992 EqPac Experiment. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 42, 831-870.

Ji, M., A. Leetmaa, and J. Derber, 1995: An ocean analysis system for climate studies. Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 460-481.

Ji, M. and T.M. Smith, 1995: Ocean model response to temperature data assimilation and varying surface wind stress: Intercomparisons and implications for climate forecast. Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 1811-1821.

Katz, E.J., A. Busalacchi, M. Bushnell, Frank González, L. Gourdeau, M. McPhaden, and J. Picaut, 1995: A comparison of coincidental time series of the ocean surface height by satellite altimeter, mooring, and inverted echo sounder. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,101-25,108.

Kessler, W.S., M.J. McPhaden, and K.M. Weickmann, 1995: Forcing of intraseasonal Kelvin Waves in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 10,613-10,631.

Kessler, W.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 1995: The 1991-93 El Niño in the Central Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 42, 295-334.

Kessler, W.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 1995: Oceanic equatorial waves and the 1991-93 El Niño. J. Clim., 8, 1757-1774.

Kindle, J.C. and P.A. Phoebus, 1995: The ocean response to operational westerly wind bursts during the 1991-92 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 4893-4920.

Kleeman, R., A.M. Moore, and N.R. Smith, 1995: Assimilation of subsurface thermal data into a simple ocean model for the initialization of an intermediate tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast model. Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 3103-3113.

Kutsuwada, K. and H. Inaba, 1995: Year-long measurement of upper-ocean currents in the western equatorial Pacific by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 73, 665-675.

Lien, R.C., D.R. Caldwell, M.C. Gregg, and J.N. Moum, 1995: Turbulence variability at the equator in the central Pacific at the beginning of the 1991-93 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 6881-6898.

Menkes, C., J.P. Boulanger, and A.J. Busalacchi, 1995: Evaluation of TOPEX and basin-wide Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean sea surface topographies and derived geostrophic currents. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,087-25,100.

Minobe, S. and K. Takeuchi, 1995: Annual period equatorial waves in the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,379-18,392.

Peters, H., M.C. Gregg, and T.B. Sanford, 1995: On the parameterization of equatorial turbulence: Effect of fine-scale variations below the range of the diurnal cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,333-18,348.

Peters, H., M.C. Gregg, and T.B. Sanford, 1995: Detail and scaling of turbulent overturns in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,349-18,368.

Picaut, J., A.J. Busalacchi, M.J. McPhaden, L. Gourdeau, F.I. González, and E.C. Hackert, 1995: Open-ocean validation of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,109-25,127.

Picaut, J. and T. Delcroix, 1995: Equatorial wave sequence associated with warm pool displacements during the 1986-1989 El Niño-La Niña. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,393-18,408.

Qiao, L. and R.H. Weisberg, 1995: Tropical instability wave kinematics: Observations from the Tropical Instability Wave Experiment (TIWE). J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8677-8694.

Ramanathan, V., B. Subasilar, G.J. Zhang, and others, 1995: Warm pool heat budget and shortwave cloud forcing: A missing physics? Science, 267, 499-503.

Robock, A., K.E. Taylor, G.L. Stenchikov, and Y. Liu, 1995: GCM evaluation of a mechanism for El Niño triggering by the El Chichón ash cloud. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2369-2372.

Roman, M.R. H.G. Dam, A.L. Gauzens, J. Urban-Rich, D.G. Foley, and T.D. Dickey, 1995: Zooplankton variability on the equator at 140°W during the JGOFS EqPac study. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 42, 673-694.

Rufenach, C., 1995: A new relationship between radar cross-section and ocean surface wind speed using ERS-1 scatterometer and buoy measurements. Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 3629-3647.

Smith, N.R., 1995: The BMRC ocean thermal analysis system. Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 44, 93-110.

Smith, N.R., 1995: An improved system for tropical ocean sub-surface temperature analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 850-870.

Smith, N.R., G.T. Needler, and the Ocean Observing System Development Panel, 1995: An Ocean Observing System for Climate: the Conceptual Design. Climatic Change, 31, 475-494.

Smith, T.M. and M. Chelliah, 1995: The annual cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean based on assimilated ocean data from 1983 to 1993. J. Clim., 8, 1600-1614.

Suzuki, T., S. Ito, K. Takeuchi, and H. Otobe, 1995: Variability of the upper ocean at the equator, 156°E, observed by R/V Hakuho-Maru during TOGA-COARE IOP. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 73, 645-652.

Vaulot D., D. Marie, R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm, 1995: Growth of Prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Science, 268, 1480-1482.

Weisberg, R.H. and S.P. Hayes, 1995: Upper ocean variability on the equator in the west-central Pacific at 170°W. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 20,485-20,498.

Zhang, G.J., 1995: On the use of monthly mean data to compute surface turbulent fluxes in the tropical Pacific. J. Clim., 8, 3084-3090.

Zhang, G.J. and M.J. McPhaden, 1995: On the relationship between sea surface temperature and latent heat flux in the equatorial Pacific. J. Clim., 8, 589-605.

Zhang, G.J., V. Ramanathan, and M.J. McPhaden, 1995: Convection-evaporation feedback in the equatorial Pacific. J. Clim., 8, 3040-3051.


1994
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Brady, E.C. and P.R. Gent, 1994: The seasonal cycle of meridional heat transport in a numerical model of the Pacific equatorial upwelling zone. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2658-2673.

Busalacchi, A.J., M.J. McPhaden, and J. Picaut, 1994: Variability in equatorial Pacific sea surface topography during the verification phase of the TOPEX/Poseidon Mission. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,725-24,738.

Chen, D., L.W. Rothstein, and A.J. Busalacchi, 1994: A hybrid vertical mixing scheme and its application to tropical ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2156-2179.

Cheney, B., L. Miller, R. Agreen, N. Doyle, and J. Lillibridge, 1994: TOPEX/POSEIDON: The 2-cm solution. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,555-24,564.

Delcroix, T., J.P. Boulanger, F. Masia, and C. Menkes, 1994: GEOSAT-derived sea level and surface current anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, during the 1986-1989 El Niño and La Niña. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 25,093-25,107.

Deser, C., 1994: Daily surface wind variations over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 23,071-23,078.

Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, C.E. Cosca, M.J. McPhaden, R.H. Byrne, F.J. Millero, F.P. Chavez, T. Clayton, D.M. Campbell, and P.P. Murphy, 1994: The effect of tropical instability wave on CO2 species distributions along the equator in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the 1992 ENSO event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 277-280.

Giese, B.S., J.A. Carton, and L.J. Holl, 1994: Sea level variability in the eastern tropical Pacific as observed by TOPEX and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,739-24,748.

Janowiak, J.E., P.A. Arkin, and M. Morrissey, 1994: An examination of the diurnal cycle in oceanic tropical rainfall using satellite and in situ data. Mon. Weather Rev., 122, 2298-2311.

Köberle, C. and S.G.H. Philander, 1994: On the processes that control seasonal variations of sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Tellus, 46A, 481-496.

Konda, M., N. Imasato, and Shibata, 1994: The variation of the air-sea heat flux evaluated by the stellite data. Umi to Sora (Sea and Sky), 70, 139-160. (in Japanese with English abstract)

Lien, R.C., M.J. McPhaden, and D. Hebert, 1994: Intercomparison of ADCP measurements at 0°,140°W. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 1334-1349.

McPhaden, M.J., 1994: The eleven-year El Niño? Nature, 370, 326-327.

Morrissey, M., W.F. Krajewski, and M.J. McPhaden, 1994: Estimating rainfall in the tropics using the fractional time raining. J. Appl. Meteorol., 33, 387-393.

Murray, J.W., R.T. Barber, M.R. Roman, M.P. Bacon, and R.A. Feely, 1994: Physical and biological controls on carbon cycling in the equatorial Pacific. Science, 266, 58-65.

Nakamoto, S., Z. Fang, T. Matsuura, T. Kawano, Y. Kashino, K. Muneyama, and T. Nakanishi, 1994: Spatial sampling requirements for tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18,363-18,370.

Reverdin, G., C. Frankignoul, E. Kestenare, and M.J. McPhaden, 1994: Seasonal variability in the surface currents of the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 20,323-20,344.

Skylingstad, E.D. and D.W. Denbo, 1994: The role of internal gravity waves in the equatorial current system. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2072-2083.

Sprintall, J. and M.J. McPhaden, 1994: Surface layer variations observed in multiyear time series measurements from the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 963-979.

Xie, S.P., 1994: On the genesis of the equatorial annual cycle. J. Clim., 7, 2008-2013.

Zhang, R.H. and E. Masahiro, 1994: Simulation of the 1986-1987 El Niño and 1988 La Niña events with a free surface tropical Pacific Ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 7743-7760.


1993
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Boyd, T.J., S.D. Luther, R.A. Knox, and M.C. Hendershott, 1993: High frequency internal waves in the strongly sheared currents of the upper equatorial Pacific: Observations and a simple spectral model. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18,089-18,108.

Delcroix, T., G. Eldin, M.J. McPhaden, and A. Morliere, 1993: Effects of westerly wind bursts upon the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, February-April 1991. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 16,379-16,386.

Deser, C., J.J. Bates, and S. Wahl, 1993: The influence of sea surface temperature gradients on Stratiform cloudiness along the equatorial front in the Pacific Ocean. J. Clim., 6, 1172-1180.

Halpern, D., 1993: Validation of special sensor microwave imager monthly-mean wind speed from July 1987 to December 1989. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31, 692-699.

Halpern, D. and M. Ji, 1993: An evaluation of the National Meteorological Center weekly hindcast of upper-ocean temperature along the eastern Pacific equator in January 1992. J. Clim., 6, 1221-1226.

Hartmann, D.L. and M.L. Michelson, 1993: Large scale effects on the regulation of tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Clim., 6, 2049-2062.

Johnson, E.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 1993: On the structure of intraseasonal Kelvin waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 608-625.

Johnson, E.S. and M.J. McPhaden, 1993: Effects of a three-dimensional mean flow on intraseasonal Kelvin waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10,185-10,194.

Kuroda, Y. and M.J. McPhaden, 1993: Variability in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during JAPACS cruises in 1989 and 1990. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 4747-4759.

McPhaden, M.J., 1993: TOGA-TAO and the 1991-93 El Niño-Southern Oscillation Event. Oceanogr., 6, 36-44.


1992 back to top

Bond, N.A., 1992: Observations of planetary boundary-layer structure in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Clim., 5, 699-706.

Delcroix T., G. Eldin, M.H. Radenac, J. Toole, and E. Firing, 1992: Variations of the western equatorial Pacific ocean, 1986-1988. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5423-5445.

Mangum, L.J., S.P. Hayes, and L.D. Stratton, 1992: Sampling requirements for the surface wind field over the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Clim., 9, 668-679.

McPhaden, M.J., F. Bahr, Y. du Penhoat, E. Firing, S.P. Hayes, P.P. Niiler, P.L. Richardson, and J.M. Toole, 1992: The response of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to westerly wind bursts during November 1989-January 1990. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 14,289-14,303.

McPhaden, M.J. and H. Peters, 1992: Diurnal cycle of internal wave variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from moored observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 1317-1329.

Moum, J.N., M.J. McPhaden, D. Hebert, H. Peters, C.A. Paulson, and D.R. Caldwell, 1992: Internal waves, dynamic instabilities and turbulence in the equatorial thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 1357-1359.

Trenberth, K.E. and G.W. Branstator, 1992: Issues in establishing causes of the 1988 drought over North America. J. Clim., 5, 159-172.

Webster, P.J. and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA-COARE: The Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 73, 1377-1416.


1991
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Atlas, R., S.C. Bloom, R.N. Hoffman, J.V. Ardizzone, and G. Brin, 1991: Space-based surface wind vectors to aid understanding of air-sea interactions. Eos Trans. AGU, 72, 201-208.

Bates, J., 1991: High-frequency variability of special sensor microwave/imager derived wind speed and moisture during an intraseasonal oscillation. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3411-3423.

Delcroix T. and C. Hénin, 1991: Seasonal and interannual variations of sea-surface salinity in the tropical Pacific ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 22,135-22,150.

Delcroix, T., J. Picaut, and G. Eldin, 1991: Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves evidenced in the Pacific Ocean through GEOSAT sea level and surface current anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3249-3262.

Hayes, S.P., P. Chang, and M.J. McPhaden, 1991: Variability of the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific during 1986-88. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 10,553-10,566.

Hayes, S.P., L.J. Mangum, J. Picaut, A. Sumi, and K. Takeuchi, 1991: TOGA-TAO: A moored array for real-time measurements in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 72, 339-347.

Hebert, D., J.N. Moum, C.A. Paulson, D.R. Caldwell, T.K. Chereskin, and M.J. McPhaden, 1991: Detailed structure of the upper ocean in the central equatorial Pacific during April 1987. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 7127-7136.

McPhaden, M.J., D.V. Hansen, and P.L. Richardson, 1991: A comparison of ship drift, drifting buoy and current meter mooring velocities in the Pacific South Equatorial Current. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 775-782.

McPhaden, M.J. and S.P. Hayes, 1991: On the variability of winds, sea surface temperature and surface layer heat content in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3331-3342.


1990
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Bender, M.L. and M.J. McPhaden, 1990: Anomalous nutrient distribution in the equatorial Pacific in April 1988: evidence for rapid biological uptake. Deep-Sea Res., 37, 1075-1084.

Latif M., J. Biercamp, H. von Storch, M.J. McPhaden, and E. Kirk, 1990: Analyses of tropical anomalies simulated by an AGCM. J. Clim., 3, 509-521.

Mangum, L.J., S.P. Hayes, J.M. Toole, Z. Wang, S. Pu, and D. Hu, 1990: Thermohaline structure and zonal pressure gradient in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7279-7288.

McPhaden, M.J., H.P. Freitag, and A.J. Shepherd, 1990: Moored salinity time series measurements at 0°,140°W. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 568-575.

McPhaden, M.J. and S.P. Hayes, 1990: Variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific during 1986-1988. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 13,195-13,208.

McPhaden, M.J., S.P. Hayes, L.J. Mangum, and J.M. Toole, 1990: Variability in the western equatorial Pacific during the 1986-87 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 190-208.

McPhaden, M.J. and J. Picaut, 1990: El Niño-Southern Oscillation displacements of the western equatorial Pacific warm pool. Science, 250, 1385-1388.

Miller, R.N., 1990: Tropical data assimilation experiments with simulated data: The impact of the TOGA-TAO array. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 11,461-11,482.

Picaut, J., A.J. Busalacchi, M.J. McPhaden, and B. Camusat, 1990: Validation of the geostrophic method for estimating zonal currents at the equator from GEOSAT altimeter data. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 3015-3024.


1989
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Cheney, R.E., B.C. Douglas, and L. Miller, 1989: Evaluation of GEOSAT altimeter data with application to tropical Pacific sea level variability. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 4737-4747.

Chereskin, T.K., E. Firing, and J.A. Gast, 1989: On identifying and screening filter skew and noise bias in acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 1040-1054.

Freitag, H.P., M.J. McPhaden, and A.J. Shepherd, 1989: Comparison of equatorial winds as measured by cup and propeller anemometers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 327-332.

Halpern, D., 1989: Detection of 17.5 day period meridional current oscillations in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean during 1985. Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 499-503.

Halpern, D. and R.H. Weisberg, 1989: Upper ocean thermal and flow fields at 0°, 28°W (Atlantic) and 0°, 140°W (Pacific) during 1983-1985. Deep-Sea Res., 36, 407-418.

Harrison, D.E. and B.S. Giese, 1989: Comment on “Response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to a westerly wind burst in May 1986” by McPhaden et al. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5024-5026.

Hayes, S.P., M.J. McPhaden, and A. Leetmaa, 1989: Observational verification of a quasi real-time simulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 2147-2157.

Hayes, S.P., M.J. McPhaden, and J.M. Wallace, 1989: The influence of sea surface temperature on surface wind in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Weekly to monthly variability. J. Clim., 2, 1500-1506.

Leetmaa, A. and M. Ji, 1989: Operational hindcasting of the tropical Pacific. Dyn. Oceans Atmos., 13, 465-490.

McPhaden, M.J., H.P. Freitag, S.P. Hayes, B.A. Taft, Z. Chen, and K. Wyrtki, 1989: Reply to comment by Harrison and Giese. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5027-5028.

Picaut, J., S.P. Hayes, and M.J. McPhaden, 1989: Use of the geostrophic approximation to estimate time-varying zonal currents at the equator. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3228-3236.

Reynolds, R.W., K. Arpe, C. Gordon, S.P. Hayes, A. Leetmaa, and M.J. McPhaden, 1989: A comparison of tropical Pacific surface wind analyses. J. Clim., 2, 105-111.


1988
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Halpern, D., R.A. Knox, and D.S. Luther, 1988: Observations of 20-day period meridional current oscillations in the upper ocean along the Pacific equator. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 1514-1534.

Halpern, D., 1988: Moored surface wind observations at four sites along the Pacific equator between 140°W and 95°W. J. Clim., 1, 1251-1260.

Imawaki, S., P.P. Niiler, C.H. Gautier, D. Halpern, R.A. Knox, W.G. Large, D.S. Luther, J.C. McWilliams, J.N. Moum, and C.A. Paulson, 1988: A new method for estimating the turbulent heat flux at the bottom of the diurnal mixed layer. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 14,005-14,012.

McPhaden, M.J., H.P. Freitag, S.P. Hayes, B.A. Taft, Z. Chen, and K. Wyrtki, 1988: The response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to a westerly wind burst in May 1986. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 10,589-10,603.

McPhaden, M.J. and B.A. Taft, 1988: On the dynamics of seasonal and intraseasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 1713-1732.


1987
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Halpern, D., 1987: Observations of annual and El Niño flow variations at 0°, 110°W and 0°, 95°W during 1980-85. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 8197-8212.


1986
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Hayes, S.P., D.W. Behringer, M. Blackmon, D.V. Hansen, N.C. Lau, A. Leetmaa, S.G.H. Philander, E.J. Pitcher, C.S. Ramage, E.M. Rasmusson, E.S. Sarachik, and B.A. Taft, 1986: The Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) Plans: 1986-1988. Eos Trans. AGU, 67, 442-444.


 

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