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FY 1992

Sulfur and nitrogen levels in the North Atlantic Ocean's atmosphere: A synthesis of field and modeling results

Galloway, J.N., J.E. Penner, C.S. Atherton, J.M. Prospero, H. Rodhe, R.S. Artz, Y.J. Balkanski, H.G. Bingemer, R.A. Brost, S. Burgermeister, G.R. Carmichael, J.S. Chang, R.J. Charlson, S. Cober, W.G. Ellis, Jr., C.J. Fischer, J.M. Hales, D.R. Hastie, T. Iversen, D.J. Jacob, K. John, J.E. Johnson, P.S. Kasibhatla, J. Langner, J. Lelieveld, H. Levy II, F. Lipschultz, J.T. Merrill, A.F. Michaels, J.M. Miller, J.L. Moody, J. Pinto, A.A.P. Pszenny, P.A. Spiro, L. Tarrason, S.M. Turner, and D.M. Whelpdale

Global Biogeochem. Cy., 6(2), doi: 10.1029/91GB02977, 77–100 (1992)


In April 1990, forty-two scientists from eight countries attended a workshop at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research to compare field measurements with model estimates of the distribution and cycling of sulfur and nitrogen species in the North Atlantic Ocean's atmosphere. Data sets on horizontal and vertical distributions of sulfur and nitrogen species and their rates of deposition were available from ships' tracks and island stations. These data were compared with estimates produced by several climatological and event models for two case studies: (1) sulfate surface distributions and deposition and (2) nitrate surface distributions and deposition. Highlights of the conclusions of the case studies were that the measured concentrations and model results of nitrate and non-seasalt sulfate depositions appeared to be in good agreement at some locations but in poor agreement for some months at other locations. The case studies illustrated the need for the measurement and modeling communities to interact not only to compare results but also to cooperate in improving the designs of the models and the field experiments.




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