DMI sea ice map for August 1936
DMI sea ice map for August 1936.

Data | Resources

Danish Meteorological Institute Sea Ice Maps

The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) compiled these maps showing the distribution of Arctic sea ice based on reports sent to the institute from ship captains and observers on land. The maps were published annually in the Nautisk-Meteorologisk Aarbog (Nautical Meteorological Annual). The digital images here were provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office.  


Ulibarri, George S., National Archives and Records Service. "Documenting Alaskan History: Guide to Federal Archives Relating to Alaska".  [Fairbanks], 1982.  University of Alaska Press.

An annotated guide to thousands of the most significant records pertaining to Alaska held by the U.S. National Archives, including those of the Revenue Cutter Service and the Coast Guard. 

Dall, William Healey, and Marcus Baker. Pacific Coast Pilot : Coasts and Islands of Alaska. Washington: G.P.O., 1879.

This edition of the Coast Pilot contains a bibliography of 3,822 titles and subtitles in 11 languages relating to the exploration of the North Pacific – Arctic region. It is claimed to be the first publication in the United States to use cyrillic type.

Chavanne, Josef, Alois Karpf, and Franz Le Monnier. "Die Literatur Über Die Polar-Regionen Der Erde".  Wien, 1878. (primarily in German). Der Gesellschaft in commission bei Ed. Hälzel.

This bibliography contains 5958 titles dealing with exploration, geography, and scientific research in the polar regions through the third quarter of the 19th century.

Brooks, C. E. P. "Selective Annotated Bibliography on Climatic Changes." Meteorological Abstracts and Bibliography. Vol. 1, 1950. 446-75.

CIEM/ICES. "Climatic Changes in the Arctic in Relation to Plants and Animals." Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions. Copenhagen: Andr. Fred. Høst & Fils, 1948. 5-52. Vol. CXXV.

The Brooks and ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) bibliographies are among the best resources on the scientific literature dealing with the early 20th century climate fluctuation in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and its environmental impacts.

Navy Hydrographic Office. Ice Atlas of the Northern Hemisphere. Vol. 550. Washington, D.C.: Publ. Hydrogr. Off., 1946.

This atlas contains a bibliography of 1700 publications.